Activation of CD137 Signaling Enhances Vascular Calcification through c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase-Dependent Disruption of Autophagic Flux
JNK pathway was involved in autophagy dysfunction induced by CD137 signaling. (a–c) The expression of p-JNK, LC3B, and p62 in aortic plaque of ApoE−/− was evaluated by immunohistochemistry staining and Western blot. (d) Western blot was employed for detecting the protein expression of p-JNK, LC3B, and p62 in VSMCs. (e, f) Image showing LC3B staining in each group of VSMCs infected with mRFP-GFP-LC3 adenovirus for 6 h. (g, h) Image showing the number of autophagosomes and autolysosomes in each group of VSMCs detected by transmission electron microscopy (red arrow: autolysosomes; white arrow: autophagosomes). Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM of at least three independent experiments. refers to ; refers to .