Activation of CD137 Signaling Enhances Vascular Calcification through c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase-Dependent Disruption of Autophagic Flux
Autophagosome-containing vesicles secreted by VSMCs stimulated by CD137 signaling could result in calcification. (a) Autophagosome-containing vesicle in agonist-CD137 group was collected and flow cytometry was used to detect the expression of LC3B of the vesicle. (b) Image showing the protein expression of LC3B in autophagosome-containing vesicle collected in each group. (c) BCA protein assay evaluated the concentration of autophagosome-containing vesicle secreted by VSMCs of each group. (d) VSMCs were cultured with PBS and agonist-CD137 group originated autophagosome-containing vesicle. Von Kossa staining was applied to indicate the calcification, and the expression of BMP2 in treated VSMCs was detected by immunohistochemistry. (e) Western blot was used to detect calcification markers of VSMCs extracted lysis. Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM of three independent experiments. refers to ; refers to .