TNF-α Downregulation Modifies Insulin Receptor Substrate 1 (IRS-1) in Metabolic Signaling of Diabetic Insulin-Resistant Hepatocytes
Effect of palmitate on TNF-α protein expression in HepG2 cells before knockdown. Time course of TNF-α protein expression in the presence of 0.5 mM palmitate. Western blot analysis was performed using antibodies against TNF-α and β-actin (internal control). The level of TNF-α protein was normalized by β-actin protein. vs. all other groups. vs. 16 h and 24 h.