Repurposing of the Nootropic Drug Vinpocetine as an Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Agent: Evidence in a Mouse Model of Superoxide Anion-Triggered Inflammation
Vinpocetine inhibits the recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages to the paw skin after KO2 stimulus. Seven hours after intraplantar injection of KO2 (30 μg/paw), the hind paw skin of Swiss mice was dissected to determine MPO ((a) neutrophil marker) and NAG ((b) macrophage marker) activities. In experiments involving LysM-eGFP mice, the hind paw skin was dissected seven hours after intraplantar injection of KO2 (30 μg/paw) for the determination of fluorescence intensity using a confocal microscope. Percentage of fluorescence is represented in (c) and representative images are shown in (d)-(f). Six hours after intraperitoneal injection of KO2 (30 μg/cavity), the peritoneal wash was collected to determine the recruitment of total leukocytes (g), mononuclear cells (h), and neutrophils (i) ( vs. saline group; vs. vehicle (0 mg/kg) group, one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s posttest; mean ± SEM).