Research Article

Combined Exposure of Activated Intestinal Epithelial Cells to Nondigestible Oligosaccharides and CpG-ODN Suppresses Th2-Associated CCL22 Release While Enhancing Galectin-9, TGFβ, and Th1 Polarization

Figure 3

CpG-ODN plus scGOS/lcFOS reduces the release of Th2-associated chemokine CCL22 by IFNγ/TNFα±IL1α-activated IEC, while CCL20 and regulatory mediators TGFβ and galectin-9 remain high. HT29 cells cultured in transwells were preincubated basolaterally with IFNγ, TNFα, or IL1α (all 10 ng/mL) alone or in combinations and apically exposed to synthetic CpG-ODN (5 μM) in the presence or absence of scGOS/lcFOS (0.5% /) for 6 h. Subsequently, the cells were washed and apically reexposed to CpG-ODN in the presence or absence of scGOS/lcFOS, after which (a) CCL20, (b) CCL22, (c) TGFβ, and (d) galectin-9 were measured in the basolateral compartment after 24 h; apical exposure to medium (white bars; 0), CpG-ODN (light grey bars; CpG), scGOS/lcFOS (dark grey bars; GF), or CpG-ODN+scGOS/lcFOS (black bars; CpG+GF); . Two-way ANOVA ( value interaction for CCL22 <0.05; all other mediators <0.001), post hoc test Tukey; ; ; and .
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)