Research Article

Combined Exposure of Activated Intestinal Epithelial Cells to Nondigestible Oligosaccharides and CpG-ODN Suppresses Th2-Associated CCL22 Release While Enhancing Galectin-9, TGFβ, and Th1 Polarization

Figure 5

ccDC derived from IEC/DC of IFNγ/TNFα/IL1α-activated IEC ligated with scGOS/lcFOS and CpG-ODN significantly enhance IFNγ, IL10, TGFβ, and galectin-9 in an allogeneic MLR. After 2 days of coculture, ccDC were harvested and washed and ccDC were incubated in a 1 : 10 ratio with allogeneic CD4+ naïve T cells. The supernatant was harvested after 6 days of culture and (a) IFNγ, (b) IL13, (c) IL10, (d) TGFβ, and (e) galectin-9 concentrations were measured; . One-way ANOVA, post hoc test Tukey; ; ; and . (f) Correlation of TGFβ and galectin-9. Correlation was analyzed using Spearman’s correlation test.