Mediators of Inflammation / 2020 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

The Potential of Food Protein-Derived Bioactive Peptides against Chronic Intestinal Inflammation

Table 2

The in vivo effect of bioactive peptides on inhibiting inflammation.


AQSynthesisEarly-weaned calvesIntravenous infusion 1.01 g/kg BW/d AQIncrease concentrations of CD2+ and CD4+ lymphocytes, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, and IgA, IgG, and s-IgA and improve intestinal integrityImprove gain performance and decrease diarrhea occurrence[52]
AQSynthesisDSS-induced colitis C57BL/6 miceInject 75 mg/kg BW/d AQReduce Th1/Th2/Th17, haptoglobin, IgG, chemokine, and MPO activityAttenuate colitis[9]
AQSynthesisDSS-induced colitis C57BL/6 miceInject 75 mg/kg BW/d AQIncrease colon length, TLR4, NF-κB activation, and expressions of mucin 2, IL-17, and TNF-α and reduce IgG, DAI, and haptoglobinInhibit inflammation and enhance mucosa recovery[53]
AQSynthesisDSS-induced colitis C57BL/6 miceInject 75 mg/kg BW/d AQReduce IL-17, Th17, and macrophageInhibit inflammation[54]
DIKTNKPVIFPotato protein hydrolysateHFD-fed SAMP8 miceOral and intraperitoneal injectionReduce expressions of p-p38, FGF-2, TNF-α, and IL-6Attenuate proinflammatory reaction via the MAPK pathway[45]
EWPEgg white proteinDSS-induced IBD in pigletsInfuse 150 mg/kg BW EWP for 5 daysReduce weight loss, crypt distortion, and expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IFN-γ, IL-8, and IL-17 and restore gut barrier functionManage IBD[55]
GLTSKPhaseolus vulgarisAOM/DSS-induced colitis BALB/c miceOral 50 mg/kg BW/d GLTSKReduce DAI and neoplasms and enhance colon lengthAttenuate colitis[56]
GlycomacropeptideMilk κ-caseinTNBS-induced ileitis ratOral 500 mg/kg BW/d peptideReduce DAI, MPO, alkaline phosphatase, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-17, and TNFAttenuate ileitis via reducing IL-17[57]
GlycomacropeptideMilk κ-caseinDSS-induced colitis C57BL/6 female miceGavage 500 mg/kg BW/d peptideReduce DAI and normalize colonic expressions of IL-1β, IL17, IL23, IL6, TGF-β, IL10, and Foxp3Inhibit inflammation[58]
GlycomacropeptideMilk κ-caseinDSS-induced colitis miceGavage 15 mg/d peptideIncrease BW and reduce DAI, CD4+, IFN-γ, and MPO activityInhibit colitis inflammation[59]
GlycomacropeptideMilk κ-caseinOxazolone-induced ulcerative colitis BALB/c miceOral 50 mg/kg BW/d peptideInhibit NF-κB and MAPK activations and reduce serum IL-1β, IL-5, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10 productionAttenuate colitis[60]
LunasinSoybean proteinLPS-induced airway inflammation miceIntranasal 20 μg/mice lunasinReduce infiltration, goblet cell metaplasia, and Th2 cytokine expressionAlleviate inflammation[15]
IRWEgg ovotransferrinSpontaneously hypertensive ratOral 15 mg/kg BW/d IRWReduce ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expressionInhibit inflammation and hypertension via the NF-κB pathway[11]
IRWEgg ovotransferrinLPS-induced inflammatory peritonitis in ratOral 40 mg/kg IRW in feedReduce serum TNF-α and IL-6 and MPO activity, increase Shannon index, and decrease Simpson indicesAttenuate inflammation[61]
IRW, IQWEgg ovotransferrinDSS-induced colitis in miceDrink water with 30 mg/mL peptideIncrease antioxidant enzyme activities and microbial diversity and abundanceAttenuate colitis[63]
IRW, IQWEgg ovotransferrinDSS-induced colitis in miceOral 0.03% peptide in dietReduce TNF-α and IL-17Inhibit colonic inflammation[64]
IRW, IQWEgg ovotransferrinCitrobacter rodentium-induced colitis in miceOral 0.03% peptide in dietRegulate intestinal microorganismsInhibit colonic inflammation[62]
KGHYAERVGRiceAutoimmune encephalitis miceOral 100 mg/kg peptideReduce productions of IL-17, IFN-γ, IL-23, and IL-12 and increase T cellsAttenuate autoimmune encephalitis[65]
KPVC-terminal sequence of α-melanocyte stimulating hormoneDSS- and TNBS-induced colitis in miceDrink water with 100 μM KPVDecrease expressions of IL-6, IL-12, IFN-γ, and IL-1βReduce intestinal inflammation via PepT1[66]
PTGADYAlaska pollock hydrolysatesHydrogenated cortisone-treated miceOral 50-200 mg/kg BW/d hydrolysateIncrease productions of IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6Immunomodulation[67]
QCQCAVEGGLCrassostrea gigasDSS-induced colitis miceOral 50 mg/kg BW/d hydrolysateReduce IgE and increase spleen CD4+/CD8+Attenuate colitis[68]
QEPVL, QEPVMilk caseinLPS-induced miceOral 200 mg/kg BW/d peptideReduce NO release, increase IL-4 and IL-10 production, and decrease IFN-γ and TNF-α productionInhibit inflammation[6]
RILSILRHQNLLKELQDLALChromogranin ADSS-induced colitis in miceIntracolonic injection 2.5 mg/kg/day peptideReduce IL-18, active macrophages, increase TJ proteinsAttenuate colitis[69]
SSEDIKEAmaranth seedsIgE-mediated food allergy mouseGavage 100 μg SSEDIKEReduce productions of IgE, IgG, IL-5, IL-13, and NF-κB and increase TGF-β and Foxp3 expressionsInhibit intestinal inflammation[70]
TMKLLLVTLCorn silk extractLPS-induced inflammatory miceOral 1 mg/kg peptideInhibit IL-β, IKKβ, and IκB phosphorylation and NF-κB activationInhibit inflammation via the IKKβ-NF-κB pathways[43]
VPPMilk caseinHFD-induced adipose inflammation miceDrink water with 0.3 mg/mL VPP for 10 weeksReduce monocytes, macrophages, CD18, IL-6, and MCP-1Attenuate inflammation via the MAPK-JNK pathway[46]
VPPMilk caseinObesity-induced adipose inflammation C57BL/6J miceDrink water with 0.1% VPP for 4 monthsReduce TNF-α and IL-1β expression and macrophage accumulation and activationAttenuate inflammation[31]
VPP, IPPMilk caseinApolipoprotein E-deficient miceOral 60.2 or 125 μmol/kg BW/d peptideReduce IL-6, IL-1β, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptorAttenuate atherosclerosis[71]
VPP, IPPMilk κ-caseinL-NAME-treated ratsDrink water with 0.3 mg/mL VPP or IPPIncrease vasorelaxation and nitrite and nitrate and reduce cardiac and renal damageAttenuate arterial dysfunction[72]
VPYSoybean proteinDSS-induced colitis BALB/C female miceDrink water with 1 mg/mL VPY (100 mg/kg BW/d)Reduce DAI, weight loss, and MPO activity and expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IFN-γ, and IL-17Treat IBD via PepT1[33]
WHSardine muscle hydrolysateDSS-induced colitis BALB/c miceOral 100 or 250 mg/kg BW/d WH for 14 dReduce DAI, cytokine expression, MAPK and IκBα activation, and IL-8 secretionInhibit intestinal inflammation[41]
Milk casein hydrolysatesLactobacillus fermentationTNBS-induced colitis miceOral 150 μg/d hydrolysateReduce BW loss, microbial translocation, colonic DAI, and IFN-γ productionTreat colitis[73]
Di- and tripeptidesSoybean proteinDSS-induced colitis pigInfuse 250 mg/kg BW/d peptidesReduce the expressions of IFNG, IL-1B, IL-12B, TNF, and IL-17A and MPO activity and increase Foxp3 expression and CD4+CD25+ T cellsAttenuate colon and ileum inflammation[74]
Peptide P-317Cyclic analog of morphiceptinTNBS/DSS-induced colonic miceIntraperitoneal 0.2 or oral 2 mg/kg BW/d peptideInhibit TNF-α and IL-1β expression and MPO activityTreat IBD[75]
pyroGlu-LeuWheat glutenDSS-induced colitis miceGavage 0.01-10 mg/kg BW/d peptideReduce DAI and normalize colonic Bacteroidetes and FirmicutesTreat IBD via gut microbiota[76]
β-CasofensinMilk proteinNMS-induced intestinal barrier alteration ratOral 10 μL/kg BW/d peptide (0.01-100 μM)Reduce intestinal damages and prevent neonatal stressProtect gut barrier[77]
γ-EC, γ-EVBeans and yeast extractsDSS-induced BALB/C female miceGavage 50 or 150 mg/kg BW/d peptideInhibit IκBα and JNK activation and the expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, INF-γ, IL-1β, and IL-17 and increase IL-10 expressionInhibit colitis inflammation via the TNF-α pathway[47]

ACE: angiotensin-converting enzyme; AOM: azoxymethane; BW: body weight; CD4+/CD8+: splenic T lymphocyte subpopulations; DAI: disease activity index; DSS: dextran sulfate sodium; Foxp3: a transcription factor that drives treg phenotypic differentiation; glycomacropeptide: a 64-amino acid peptide in stomach casein hydrolysis; HFD: high-fat diet; IBD: inflammatory bowel diseases; iNOS: inducible oxide nitric synthase; IFN: interferon; IKKβ: inhibitory κB kinase-β; IL-1β: interleukin-1β; KC: keratinocyte-derived chemokine; LPS: lipopolysaccharide; L-NAME: N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride; MCP-1: monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; MPO: myeloperoxidase; NF-κB: nuclear factor-κB; NMS: neonatal maternal separation; NO: nitric oxide; PPARγ: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma; RAW264.7: a mouse macrophage cell line; SAMP8: senescence-accelerated mice prone 8; TGF-β: transforming growth factor β; TJ: tight junction; TLR4: toll-like receptor 4; Th1/2/17: T-helper-cell-associated cytokine 1/2/17; TNBS: 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid.

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