Research Article

The Dopamine D1 Receptor Attenuates Titanium Particle-Induced Inhibition of Osteogenesis by Activating the Wnt Signaling Pathway

Figure 1

Titanium particles inhibit the differentiation of osteoblasts in vitro. (a) MC3T3-E1 cell viability was measured by the CCK-8 assay. (b) Representative images of ALP and ARS staining in vitro. (c, d) Quantification of ALP activity and bone mineralization in MC3T3-E1 cells in each group. Note: per group; and compared with the Ctrl group (without titanium particle intervention). (e) Representative images of western blots probed with antibodies against OSX and Runx2. (f, g) Quantification of OSX and Runx2 protein levels. per group. NS: not statistically significant; and vs. the ctrl group at the same time point.