The Dopamine D1 Receptor Attenuates Titanium Particle-Induced Inhibition of Osteogenesis by Activating the Wnt Signaling Pathway
D1R activation abrogates osteogenesis inhibition caused by titanium particles in vitro. (a, b) Cell viability of MC3T3-E1 cells treated with D1R agonists and inhibitors was measured by CCK-8 assays. (c) Representative western blots probed with antibodies against OSX, Runx2, and D1R. (d–f) Quantification of OSX, Runx2, and D1R protein levels. per group. NS: no statistical significance, and compared to the Ti group (titanium particle intervention group). (g) Representative images of ALP and ARS staining in vitro. (h, i) Quantitative analysis of ALP activity and bone mineralization in BMSC cells in each group. Note: per group; and compared with the Ti group.