Mediators of Inflammation The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Anti-Inflammatory Strategy for M2 Microglial Polarization Using Retinoic Acid-Loaded Nanoparticles Wed, 23 Aug 2017 06:28:16 +0000 Inflammatory mechanisms triggered by microglial cells are involved in the pathophysiology of several brain disorders, hindering repair. Herein, we propose the use of retinoic acid-loaded polymeric nanoparticles (RA-NP) as a means to modulate microglia response towards an anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective phenotype (M2). RA-NP were first confirmed to be internalized by N9 microglial cells; nanoparticles did not affect cell survival at concentrations below 100 μg/mL. Then, immunocytochemical studies were performed to assess the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. Our results show that RA-NP inhibited LPS-induced release of nitric oxide and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and promoted arginase-1 and interleukin-4 production. Additionally, RA-NP induced a ramified microglia morphology (indicative of M2 state), promoting tissue viability, particularly neuronal survival, and restored the expression of postsynaptic protein-95 in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures exposed to an inflammatory challenge. RA-NP also proved to be more efficient than the free equivalent RA concentration. Altogether, our data indicate that RA-NP may be envisioned as a promising therapeutic agent for brain inflammatory diseases. Marta Machado-Pereira, Tiago Santos, Lino Ferreira, Liliana Bernardino, and Raquel Ferreira Copyright © 2017 Marta Machado-Pereira et al. All rights reserved. IL-25 Could Be Involved in the Development of Allergic Rhinitis Sensitized to House Dust Mite Wed, 23 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Background and Purpose. When house dust mite (HDM), a common allergen, comes into the mucosal membrane, it may stimulate innate immunity. However, the precise role of interleukin- (IL-) 25 in the development of HDM-induced nasal allergic inflammation is still unclear. Therefore, we investigated the role of IL-25 in allergic rhinitis (AR) patients sensitized to HDM. Methods. To confirm the production of IL-25 in human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs), we stimulated HNECs. IL-25 expression in the nasal mucosa from control, non-AR (NAR) patients, and HDM-sensitized AR patients was assessed using immunohistochemistry, and quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Correlations between IL-25 and other inflammatory markers were explored. Results. An in vitro study showed significantly elevated concentrations of IL-25 in the HNEC samples with highest doses of HDM. Nasal tissues from AR patients sensitized to HDM showed significantly higher IL-25 expression, compared to those from the control or NAR patients. Moreover, the expression of IL-25 in nasal tissues from AR patients sensitized to HDM was positively associated with Th2 markers, such as ECP and GATA3. Conclusions. IL-25 expression increased with high-dose HDM stimulation and was related to Th2 markers. Therefore, IL-25 neutralization might offer a new strategy for treating patients with HDM-sensitized AR. Dae Woo Kim, Dong-Kyu Kim, Kyoung Mi Eun, Jun-Sang Bae, Young-Jun Chung, Jun Xu, Yong Min Kim, and Ji-Hun Mo Copyright © 2017 Dae Woo Kim et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Impact of Sphingosine-1-Phosphate in Breast Cancer Tue, 22 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Breast cancer metastasizes to lymph nodes or other organs, which determine the prognosis of patients. It is difficult to cure the breast cancer patients with distant metastasis due to resistance to drug therapies. Elucidating the underlying mechanisms of breast cancer metastasis and drug resistance is expected to provide new therapeutic targets. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a pleiotropic, bioactive lipid mediator that regulates many cellular functions, including proliferation, migration, survival, angiogenesis/lymphangiogenesis, and immune responses. S1P is formed in cells by sphingosine kinases and released from them, which acts in an autocrine, paracrine, and/or endocrine manner. S1P in extracellular space, such as interstitial fluid, interacts with components in the tumor microenvironment, which may be important for metastasis. Importantly, recent translational research has demonstrated an association between S1P levels in breast cancer patients and clinical outcomes, highlighting the clinical importance of S1P in breast cancer. We suggest that S1P is one of the key molecules to overcome the resistance to the drug therapies, such as hormonal therapy, anti-HER2 therapy, or chemotherapy, all of which are crucial aspects of a breast cancer treatment. Junko Tsuchida, Masayuki Nagahashi, Kazuaki Takabe, and Toshifumi Wakai Copyright © 2017 Junko Tsuchida et al. All rights reserved. Selective ATP-Binding Cassette Subfamily C Gene Expression and Proinflammatory Mediators Released by BEAS-2B after PM2.5, Budesonide, and Cotreated Exposures Wed, 16 Aug 2017 05:27:43 +0000 ATP-binding cassette subfamily C (ABCC) genes code for phase III metabolism proteins that translocate xenobiotic (e.g., particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5)) and drug metabolites outside the cells. IL-6 secretion is related with the activation of the ABCC transporters. This study assesses ABCC1–4 gene expression changes and proinflammatory cytokine (IL-6, IL-8) release in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) exposed to PM2.5 organic extract, budesonide (BUD, used to control inflammation in asthmatic patients), and a cotreatment (Co-T: PM2.5 and BUD). A real-time PCR assay shows that ABCC1 was upregulated in BEAS-2B exposed after 6 and 7 hr to PM2.5 extract or BUD but downregulated after 6 hr of the Co-T. ABCC3 was downregulated after 6 hr of BUD and upregulated after 6 hr of the Co-T exposures. ABCC4 was upregulated after 5 hr of PM2.5 extract, BUD, and the Co-T exposures. The cytokine assay revealed an increase in IL-6 release by BEAS-2B exposed after 5 hr to PM2.5 extract, BUD, and the Co-T. At 7 hr, the Co-T decreases IL-6 release and IL-8 at 6 hr. In conclusion, the cotreatment showed an opposite effect on exposed BEAS-2B as compared with BUD. The results suggest an interference of the BUD therapeutic potential by PM2.5. Jarline Encarnación-Medina, Rosa I. Rodríguez-Cotto, Joseph Bloom-Oquendo, Mario G. Ortiz-Martínez, Jorge Duconge, and Braulio Jiménez-Vélez Copyright © 2017 Jarline Encarnación-Medina et al. All rights reserved. Short-Term Regulation of FcγR-Mediated Phagocytosis by TLRs in Macrophages: Participation of 5-Lipoxygenase Products Tue, 15 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 TLRs recognize a broad spectrum of microorganism molecules, triggering a variety of cellular responses. Among them, phagocytosis is a critical process for host defense. Leukotrienes (LTs), lipid mediators produced from 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) enzyme, increase FcγR-mediated phagocytosis. Here, we evaluated the participation of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR9 in FcγR-mediated phagocytosis and whether this process is modulated by LTs. Rat alveolar macrophages (AMs), murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), and peritoneal macrophages (PMs) treated with TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 agonists, but not TLR9, enhanced IgG-opsonized sheep red blood cell (IgG-sRBC) phagocytosis. Pretreatment of AMs or BMDMs with drugs that block LT synthesis impaired the phagocytosis promoted by TLR ligands, and TLR potentiation was also abrogated in PMs and BMDMs from 5-LO−/− mice. LTB4 production induced by IgG engagement was amplified by TLR ligands, while cys-LTs were amplified by activation of TLR2 and TLR4, but not by TLR3. We also noted higher ERK1/2 phosphorylation in IgG-RBC-challenged cells when preincubated with TLR agonists. Furthermore, ERK1/2 inhibition by PD98059 reduced the phagocytic activity evoked by TLR agonists. Together, these data indicate that TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 ligands, but not TLR9, amplify IgG-mediated phagocytosis by a mechanism which requires LT production and ERK-1/2 pathway activation. Carla da S. Pinheiro, Ana Paula T. Monteiro, Fabiano F. Dutra, Marcelo T. Bozza, Marc Peters-Golden, Claudia F. Benjamim, and Claudio Canetti Copyright © 2017 Carla da S. Pinheiro et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Porcine Toxoplasma gondii Infection as a Representative Model for Human Toxoplasmosis Sun, 13 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Porcine infections are currently not the state-of-the-art model to study human diseases. Nevertheless, the course of human and porcine toxoplasmosis is much more comparable than that of human and murine toxoplasmosis. For example, severity of infection, transplacental transmission, and interferon-gamma-induced antiparasitic effector mechanisms are similar in pigs and humans. In addition, the severe immunosuppression during acute infection described in mice does not occur in the experimentally infected ones. Thus, we hypothesise that porcine Toxoplasma gondii infection data are more representative for human toxoplasmosis. We therefore suggest that the animal model chosen must be critically evaluated for its assignability to human diseases. Julia Nau, Silvia Kathrin Eller, Johannes Wenning, Katrin Henrike Spekker-Bosker, Horst Schroten, Christian Schwerk, Andrea Hotop, Uwe Groß, and Walter Däubener Copyright © 2017 Julia Nau et al. All rights reserved. A Controversial Medicolegal Issue: Timing the Onset of Perinatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury Sun, 13 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, as a result of chronic, subacute, and acute insults, represents the pathological consequence of fetal distress and birth or perinatal asphyxia, that is, “nonreassuring fetal status.” Hypoxic-ischemic injury (HII) is typically characterized by an early phase of damage, followed by a delayed inflammatory local response, in an apoptosis-necrosis continuum. In the early phase, the cytotoxic edema and eventual acute lysis take place; with reperfusion, additional damage should be assigned to excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. Finally, a later phase involves all the inflammatory activity and long-term neural tissue repairing and remodeling. In this model mechanism, loss of mitochondrial function is supposed to be the hallmark of secondary injury progression, and autophagy which is lysosome-mediated play a role in enhancing brain injury. Early-induced molecules driven by hypoxia, as chaperonins HSPs and ORP150, besides common markers for inflammatory responses, have predictive value in timing the onset of neonatal HII; on the other hand, clinical biomarkers for HII diagnosis, as CK-BB, LDH, S-100beta, and NSE, could be useful to predict outcomes. Vittorio Fineschi, Rocco Valerio Viola, Raffaele La Russa, Alessandro Santurro, and Paola Frati Copyright © 2017 Vittorio Fineschi et al. All rights reserved. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Multidrug-Resistant Strain M Induces Low IL-8 and Inhibits TNF-α Secretion by Bronchial Epithelial Cells Altering Neutrophil Effector Functions Wed, 09 Aug 2017 06:37:59 +0000 M strain, the most prevalent multidrug-resistant strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in Argentina, has mounted mechanisms to evade innate immune response. The role of human bronchial epithelium in Mtb infection remains unknown as well as its crosstalk with neutrophils (PMN). In this work, we evaluate whether M and H37Rv strains invade and replicate within bronchial epithelial cell line Calu-6 and how conditioned media (CM) derived from infected cells alter PMN responses. We demonstrated that M infects and survives within Calu-6 without promoting death. CM from M-infected Calu-6 (M-CM) did not attract PMN in correlation with its low IL-8 content compared to H37Rv-CM. Also, PMN activation and ROS production in response to irradiated H37Rv were impaired after treatment with M-CM due to the lack of TNF-α. Interestingly, M-CM increased H37Rv replication in PMN which would allow the spreading of mycobacteria upon PMN death and sustain IL-8 release. Thus, our results indicate that even at low invasion/replication rate within Calu-6, M induces the secretion of factors altering the crosstalk between these nonphagocytic cells and PMN, representing an evasion mechanism developed by M strain to persist in the host. These data provide new insights on the role of bronchial epithelium upon M infection. Denise Kviatcovsky, Leonardo Rivadeneyra, Luciana Balboa, Noemí Yokobori, Beatriz López, Viviana Ritacco, Mirta Schattner, María del Carmen Sasiain, and Silvia de la Barrera Copyright © 2017 Denise Kviatcovsky et al. All rights reserved. Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Modulates Neutrophil Recruitment in a Murine Model of Endotoxemia Wed, 09 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The endocannabinoid system consists of endogenous lipid mediators and cannabinoid receptors (CB) 1 and 2. It has previously been demonstrated that activation of the leukocyte-expressed CB2 has anti-inflammatory effects in vivo. Here, we report its role under baseline conditions and in a model of low-dose endotoxemia by comparing CB2 knockout to littermate control mice. CB2-deficient mice displayed significantly more neutrophils and fewer monocytes in the bone marrow under steady state. In initial validation experiments, administration of 1 mg/kg LPS to male C57BL/6J mice was shown to transiently upregulate systemic proinflammatory mediators (peaked at 2 hours) and mobilise bone marrow neutrophils and monocytes into circulation. In CB2 knockout mice, the level of the metalloproteinase MMP-9 was significantly elevated by 2 hours and we also observed augmented recruitment of neutrophils to the spleen in addition to increased levels of Ccl2, Ccl3, Cxcl10, and Il6. Collectively, our data show that the absence of CB2 receptor increases the levels of innate immune cell populations in the bone marrow under steady state. Furthermore, during an acute systemic inflammatory insult, we observe a highly reproducible and site-specific increase in neutrophil recruitment and proinflammatory chemokine expression in the spleen of CB2 knockout mice. Theodore S. Kapellos, Carlota Recio, David R. Greaves, and Asif J. Iqbal Copyright © 2017 Theodore S. Kapellos et al. All rights reserved. The Role of Proinflammatory Pathways in the Pathogenesis of Colitis-Associated Colorectal Cancer Wed, 09 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). The risk factors of CRC in IBD patients include long disease duration, extensive colitis, severe histological inflammation, and coexistence with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Several molecular pathways that contribute to sporadic CRC are also involved in the pathogenesis of colitis-associated CRC. It is well established that long-standing chronic inflammation is a key predisposing factor of CRC in IBD. Proinflammatory pathways, including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), IL-6/STAT3, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/PGE2, and IL-23/Th17, promote tumorigenesis by inducing the production of inflammatory mediators, upregulating the expression of antiapoptotic genes, and stimulating cell proliferation as well as angiogenesis. Better understanding of the underlying mechanisms may provide some promising targets for prevention and therapy. This review aims to elucidate the role of these signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of colitis-associated CRC using evidence-based approaches. Chengxin Luo and Hu Zhang Copyright © 2017 Chengxin Luo and Hu Zhang. All rights reserved. Potential Biomarkers for NSAID-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease Wed, 09 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Asthma is a common chronic disease with several variant phenotypes and endotypes. NSAID-exacerbated respiratory disease (NERD) is one such endotype characterized by asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyps, and hypersensitivity to aspirin/cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitors. NERD is more associated with severe asthma than other asthma phenotypes. Regarding diagnosis, aspirin challenge tests via the oral or bronchial route are a standard diagnostic method; reliable in vitro diagnostic tests are not available. Recent studies have reported various biomarkers of phenotype, diagnosis, and prognosis. In this review, we summarized the known potential biomarkers of NERD that are distinct from those of aspirin-tolerant asthma. We also provided an overview of the different NERD subgroups. Hanki Park, Youngwoo Choi, Chang-Gyu Jung, and Hae-Sim Park Copyright © 2017 Hanki Park et al. All rights reserved. Beyond Immune Cell Migration: The Emerging Role of the Sphingosine-1-phosphate Receptor S1PR4 as a Modulator of Innate Immune Cell Activation Mon, 07 Aug 2017 07:42:10 +0000 The sphingolipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) emerges as an important regulator of immunity, mainly by signaling through a family of five specific G protein-coupled receptors (S1PR1–5). While S1P signaling generally has the potential to affect not only trafficking but also differentiation, activation, and survival of a diverse range of immune cells, the specific outcome depends on the S1P receptor repertoire expressed on a given cell. Among the S1PRs, S1PR4 is specifically abundant in immune cells, suggesting a major role of the S1P/S1PR4 axis in immunity. Recent studies indeed highlight its role in activation of immune cells, differentiation, and, potentially, trafficking. In this review, we summarize the emerging data that support a major role of S1PR4 in modulating immunity in humans and mice and discuss therapeutic implications. Catherine Olesch, Christian Ringel, Bernhard Brüne, and Andreas Weigert Copyright © 2017 Catherine Olesch et al. All rights reserved. Platelet-Rich Plasma as an Autologous and Proangiogenic Cell Delivery System Sun, 06 Aug 2017 06:26:44 +0000 Angiogenesis is a key factor in early stages of wound healing and is crucial for the repair of vascularized tissues such as the bone. However, supporting timely revascularization of the defect site still presents a clinical challenge. Tissue engineering approaches delivering endothelial cells or prevascularized constructs may overcome this problem. In the current study, we investigated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) gels as autologous, injectable cell delivery systems for prevascularized constructs. PRP was produced from human thrombocyte concentrates. GFP-expressing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were encapsulated in PRP gels in different proportions. The formation of cellular networks was assessed over 14 days by time-lapse microscopy, gene expression analysis, and immunohistology. PRP gels presented a favorable environment for the formation of a three-dimensional (3D) cellular network. The formation of these networks was apparent as early as 3 days after seeding. Networks increased in complexity and branching over time but were only stable in HUVEC-MSC cocultures. The high cell viability together with the 3D capillary-like networks observed at early time points suggests that PRP can be used as an autologous and proangiogenic cell delivery system for the repair of vascularized tissues such as the bone. Jessica Zahn, Markus Loibl, Christoph Sprecher, Michael Nerlich, Mauro Alini, Sophie Verrier, and Marietta Herrmann Copyright © 2017 Jessica Zahn et al. All rights reserved. The Lymphotoxin β Receptor Is Essential for Upregulation of IFN-Induced Guanylate-Binding Proteins and Survival after Toxoplasma gondii Infection Sun, 06 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) signaling plays an important role in efficient initiation of host responses to a variety of pathogens, encompassing viruses, bacteria, and protozoans via induction of the type I interferon response. The present study reveals that after Toxoplasma gondii infection, LTβR−/− mice show a substantially reduced survival rate when compared to wild-type mice. LTβR−/− mice exhibit an increased parasite load and a more pronounced organ pathology. Also, a delayed increase of serum IL-12p40 and a failure of the protective IFNγ response in LTβR−/− mice were observed. Serum NO levels in LTβR−/− animals rose later and were markedly decreased compared to wild-type animals. At the transcriptional level, LTβR−/− animals exhibited a deregulated expression profile of several cytokines known to play a role in activation of innate immunity in T. gondii infection. Importantly, expression of the IFNγ-regulated murine guanylate-binding protein (mGBP) genes was virtually absent in the lungs of LTβR−/− mice. This demonstrates clearly that the LTβR is essential for the induction of a type II IFN-mediated immune response against T. gondii. The pronounced inability to effectively upregulate host defense effector molecules such as GBPs explains the high mortality rates of LTβR−/− animals after T. gondii infection. Kristina Behnke, Ursula R. Sorg, Helmut E. Gabbert, and Klaus Pfeffer Copyright © 2017 Kristina Behnke et al. All rights reserved. The Role of Defensins in HIV Pathogenesis Thu, 03 Aug 2017 09:34:45 +0000 Profound loss of CD4+ T cells, progressive impairment of the immune system, inflammation, and sustained immune activation are the characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. Innate immune responses respond immediately from the day of HIV infection, and a thorough understanding of the interaction between several innate immune cells and HIV-1 is essential to determine to what extent those cells play a crucial role in controlling HIV-1 in vivo. Defensins, divided into the three subfamilies α-, β-, and θ-defensins based on structure and disulfide linkages, comprise a critical component of the innate immune response and exhibit anti-HIV-1 activities and immunomodulatory capabilities. In humans, only α- and β-defensins are expressed in various tissues and have broad impacts on HIV-1 transmission, replication, and disease progression. θ-defensins have been identified as functional peptides in Old World monkeys, but not in humans. Instead, θ-defensins exist only as pseudogenes in humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas. The use of the synthetic θ-defensin peptide “retrocyclin” as an antiviral therapy was shown to be promising, and further research into the development of defensin-based HIV-1 therapeutics is needed. This review focuses on the role of defensins in HIV-1 pathogenesis and highlights future research efforts that warrant investigation. Barcley T. Pace, Andrew A. Lackner, Edith Porter, and Bapi Pahar Copyright © 2017 Barcley T. Pace et al. All rights reserved. Enhanced Expression of IL-18 and IL-18BP in Plasma of Patients with Eczema: Altered Expression of IL-18BP and IL-18 Receptor on Mast Cells Thu, 03 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 IL-18 has been found to be associated with eczema. However, little is known of the role of IL-18 binding protein (BP) and IL-18 receptor (R) in eczema. We therefore investigated the expression of IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R on mast cells by using flow cytometry analysis and mouse eczema model. The results showed that plasma free IL-18 and free IL-18BP levels in eczema patients were higher than those in healthy controls. IL-18 provoked up to 3.1-fold increase in skin mast cells. IL-18 induced also an increase in IL-18BP+ mast cells, but a reduction of IL-18R+ mast cells in mouse eczema skin. It was found that house dust mite allergen Der p1 and egg allergen OVA induced upregulation of the expression of IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R mRNAs in HMC-1 cells following 2 and 16 h incubation. In conclusion, correlation of IL-18 and IL-18BP in eczema plasma suggests an important balance between IL-18 and IL-18BP in eczema. The decrease in molar concentration ratio of plasma IL-18BP/IL-18 and allergen-induced upregulated expression of IL-18 and IL-18R in skin mast cells of the patients with eczema suggests that anti-IL-18 including IL-18BP therapy may be useful for the treatment of eczema. Yalin Hu, Junling Wang, Huiyun Zhang, Hua Xie, Weiwei Song, Qijun Jiang, Nan Zhao, and Shaoheng He Copyright © 2017 Yalin Hu et al. All rights reserved. The Correlation between FSTL1 Expression and Airway Remodeling in Asthmatics Thu, 03 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Background. Asthma is characterized by airway remodeling. Follistatin-like protein 1 (FSTL1) is an extracellular glycoprotein. Recent studies suggest that FSTL1 may participate in the pathogenesis of asthma. Objectives. To analyze the association between FSTL1 and some parameters and inspect the role of FSTL1 in asthma. Methods. We examined FSTL1 levels in 32 asthmatics and 25 controls. All subjects enrolled had routine blood tests, spirometry, and impulse oscillometry performed. Additionally, 15 of the 32 asthmatics underwent fibre optic bronchoscopy. Spearman rank analysis was performed to detect the correlation between FSTL1 and other parameters. Results. Plasma FSTL1 levels were higher in asthmatics (130.762 ± 46.029 ng/mL) than in controls (95.408 ± 33.938 ng/mL) (). Plasma FSTL1 levels were associated with fibrosis levels around the airways (, ) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) (, ). FSTL1 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were associated with collagen I (, ), α-SMA (, ), fibrosis levels (, ), and the thickness of the airway reticular basement membrane (RBM) (, ). Conclusions. FSTL1 levels in asthmatics were linked with increased smooth muscle mass and thickened RBM. FSTL1 may contribute to airway remodeling in asthmatics. Yahui Liu, Tian Liu, Jinxiang Wu, Tao Li, Xingai Jiao, Haiqing Zhang, Jiping Zhao, Junfei Wang, Lin Liu, Liuzhao Cao, Shuo Li, Jiawei Xu, Jianfeng Xu, Xiaohui Ma, Lei Yang, and Liang Dong Copyright © 2017 Yahui Liu et al. All rights reserved. IL-10-Producing B Cells Suppress Effector T Cells Activation and Promote Regulatory T Cells in Crystalline Silica-Induced Inflammatory Response In Vitro Wed, 02 Aug 2017 05:56:48 +0000 Long-term exposure to crystalline silica leads to silicosis, which is characterized by persistent lung inflammation and lung fibrosis. Multiple immune cells have been demonstrated to participate in crystalline silica-induced immune responses. Our previous study indicated that B10 could control lung inflammation through modulating the Th balance in experimental silicosis in mice. However, the regulatory mechanism of B10 on CD4+ T cells is still unclear. MACS-sorted CD19+ B cells from the three different groups were cultured with CD4+ T cells either with or without transwell insert plates to evaluate the effects of B10 on CD4+ T cells, including Teff and Treg. B10 was eliminated by anti-CD22 application in vivo. Flow cytometry was used to test the frequencies of CD4+ T cells, and the expressions of the related cytokines were detected by real-time PCR and CBA. Insufficient B10 elevated the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and promoted Th responses in a way independent upon cell-cell contact in the Teff and B cell coculture system. B10 could both increase Treg activity and enhance conversion of Teff into Treg. Our findings demonstrated that B10 could affect Th responses by the release of IL-10, enhancing Treg functions and converting Teff into Treg. Yiping Lu, Fangwei Liu, Chao Li, Ying Chen, Dong Weng, and Jie Chen Copyright © 2017 Yiping Lu et al. All rights reserved. Intrathecal Resiniferatoxin Modulates TRPV1 in DRG Neurons and Reduces TNF-Induced Pain-Related Behavior Wed, 02 Aug 2017 02:16:52 +0000 Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) is a nonselective cation channel, predominantly expressed in sensory neurons. TRPV1 is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and neuropathic pain states. Previous studies suggest interactions between tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) alpha and TRPV1, resulting in a modulation of ion channel function and protein expression in sensory neurons. We examined the effect of intrathecal administration of the ultrapotent TRPV1 agonist resiniferatoxin (RTX) on TNF-induced pain-associated behavior of rats using von Frey and hot plate behavioral testing. Intrathecal injection of TNF induces mechanical allodynia (2 and 20 ng/kg) and thermal hyperalgesia (200 ng) 24 h after administration. The additional intrathecal administration of RTX (1.9 μg/kg) alleviates TNF-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia 24 h after injection. In addition, TNF increases the TRPV1 protein level and number of TRPV1-expressing neurons. Both effects could be abolished by the administration of RTX. These results suggest that the involvement of TRPV1 in TNF-induced pain offers new TRPV1-based experimental therapeutic approaches and demonstrates the analgesic potential of RTX in inflammatory pain diseases. M. Leo, M. Schulte, L.-I. Schmitt, M. Schäfers, C. Kleinschnitz, and T. Hagenacker Copyright © 2017 M. Leo et al. All rights reserved. Advances in Immunotherapy for Melanoma: A Comprehensive Review Tue, 01 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Melanomas are tumors originating from melanocytes and tend to show early metastasis secondary to the loss of cellular adhesion in the primary tumor, resulting in high mortality rates. Cancer-specific active immunotherapy is an experimental form of treatment that stimulates the immune system to recognize antigens on the surface of cancer cells. Current experimental approaches in immunotherapy include vaccines, biochemotherapy, and the transfer of adoptive T cells and dendritic cells. Several types of vaccines, including peptide, viral, and dendritic cell vaccines, are currently under investigation for the treatment of melanoma. These treatments have the same goal as drugs that are already used to stimulate the proliferation of T lymphocytes in order to destroy tumor cells; however, immunotherapies aim to selectively attack the tumor cells of each patient. In this comprehensive review, we describe recent advancements in the development of immunotherapies for melanoma, with a specific focus on the identification of neoantigens for the prediction of their elicited immune responses. This review is expected to provide important insights into the future of immunotherapy for melanoma. Carmen Rodríguez-Cerdeira, Miguel Carnero Gregorio, Adriana López-Barcenas, Elena Sánchez-Blanco, Beatriz Sánchez-Blanco, Gabriella Fabbrocini, Brunilda Bardhi, Ardiana Sinani, and Roberto Arenas Guzman Copyright © 2017 Carmen Rodríguez-Cerdeira et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Inflammatory Markers in a Large Sample of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients without Comorbidities Mon, 31 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Systemic inflammation is important in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) pathophysiology and its comorbidity. We aimed to assess the levels of inflammatory biomarkers in a large sample of OSA patients and to investigate any correlation between these biomarkers with clinical and polysomnographic (PSG) parameters. This was a cross-sectional study in which 2983 patients who had undergone a polysomnography for OSA diagnosis were recruited. Patients with known comorbidities were excluded. Included patients () were grouped according to apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) as mild, moderate, and severe. Patients with AHI < 5 served as controls. Demographics, PSG data, and levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), fibrinogen, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and uric acid (UA) were measured and compared between groups. A significant difference was found between groups in hs-CRP, fibrinogen, and UA. All biomarkers were independently associated with OSA severity and gender (). Females had increased levels of hs-CRP, fibrinogen, and ESR () compared to men. In contrast, UA levels were higher in men (). Our results suggest that inflammatory markers significantly increase in patients with OSA without known comorbidities and correlate with OSA severity. These findings may have important implications regarding OSA diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, and prognosis. This trial is registered with number NCT03070769. Izolde Bouloukaki, Charalampos Mermigkis, Nikolaos Tzanakis, Eleftherios Kallergis, Violeta Moniaki, Eleni Mauroudi, and Sophia E. Schiza Copyright © 2017 Izolde Bouloukaki et al. All rights reserved. IL-10 and socs3 Are Predictive Biomarkers of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Sun, 30 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Background. Cytokines play important roles in the physiopathology of dengue infection; therefore, the suppressors of cytokine signaling (socs) that control the type and timing of cytokine functions could be involved in the origin of immune alterations in dengue. Objective. To explore the association of cytokine and socs levels with disease severity in dengue patients. Methods. Blood samples of 48 patients with confirmed dengue infection were analyzed. Amounts of interleukins IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10, interferon- (IFN-) γ, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α were quantified by flow cytometry, and the relative expression of socs1 and socs3 mRNA was quantified by real-time RT-PCR. Results. Increased levels of IL-10 and socs3 and lower expression of socs1 were found in patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) with respect to those with dengue fever (DF) (). Negative correlations were found between socs1 and both IL-10 and socs3 (). The cutoff values of socs3 (>199.8-fold), socs1 (<1.94-fold), and IL-10 (>134 pg/ml) have the highest sensitivity and specificity to discriminate between DF and DHF. Conclusion. Simultaneous changes in IL-10 and socs1/socs3 could be used as prognostic biomarkers of dengue severity. Lilian Karem Flores-Mendoza, Tania Estrada-Jiménez, Virginia Sedeño-Monge, Margarita Moreno, María del Consuelo Manjarrez, Guadalupe González-Ochoa, Lourdes Millán-Pérez Peña, and Julio Reyes-Leyva Copyright © 2017 Lilian Karem Flores-Mendoza et al. All rights reserved. Serum Cytokeratin 18 M30 Levels in Chronic Hepatitis B Reflect Both Phase and Histological Activities of Disease Sun, 30 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Chronic hepatitis B has highly a dynamic course with significant fluctuations of HBV-DNA and ALT impeding assessment of disease activity. New biomarkers of inflammatory versus noninflammatory stages of HBV infection are urgently needed. Cytokeratin 18 epitope M30 (M30 CK-18) is a sensitive marker of cell death. We aimed to investigate an association between serum M30 CK-18 and histological activity and phase of HBV infection. 150 Caucasian patients with HBV-infection were included in the study. Serum M30 CK-18 levels reflected phase of disease, being significantly higher in both HBeAg(+) and HBeAg(−) hepatitis B in comparison to HBsAg(+) carrier groups. The highest serum M30 CK-18 levels were observed in subjects with the most advanced stages of HBV. Moreover, its serum concentrations correlated with both inflammatory activity and fibrosis advancement (ANOVA ). Importantly, serum M30 CK-18 levels were able to discriminate patients with mild versus moderate-advanced fibrosis (AUC: 0.86) and mild versus active liver inflammation (AUC: 0.79). M30 CK-18 serum concentration has good sensitivity and specificity in discriminating mild versus moderate/severe fibrosis and inflammation even in patients with normal ALT activity. This study suggests M30 CK-18 as a potential noninvasive marker of disease activity and also a marker of phase of persistent HBV infection. Magdalena Świderska, Jerzy Jaroszewicz, Anna Parfieniuk-Kowerda, Magdalena Rogalska-Płońska, Agnieszka Stawicka, Anatol Panasiuk, and Robert Flisiak Copyright © 2017 Magdalena Świderska et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Epstein-Barr Virus-Induced Gene 3 (EBI3) Blocking Leads to Induce Antitumor Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Response and Suppress Tumor Growth in Colorectal Cancer by Bidirectional Reciprocal-Regulation STAT3 Signaling Pathway” Thu, 27 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Yanfang Liang, Qianqian Chen, Wenjing Du, Can Chen, Feifei Li, Jingying Yang, Jianyu Peng, Dongping Kang, Bihua Lin, Xingxing Chai, Keyuan Zhou, and Jincheng Zeng Copyright © 2017 Yanfang Liang et al. All rights reserved. Different Modulatory Effects of IL-17, IL-22, and IL-23 on Osteoblast Differentiation Thu, 27 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Objectives. To examine the expressions of IL-17, IL-22, and IL-23 receptors in four osteoblast models and the effects of IL-17, IL-22, and IL-23 on osteoblasts. Methods. Gene expression levels of receptors, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OCN), and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx-2), were evaluated by RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Proliferative responses and cell cycle analysis were detected by a CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. ALP activity and ALP mass were detected by an ALP activity assay and ALP staining, respectively. Results. In primary osteoblasts, only the IL-17 receptor was expressed. In C2C12, MC3T3-E1, and Saos-2 cells, the genes of IL-17, IL-22, and IL-23 receptors were not detectable. None of IL-17, IL-22, and IL-23 had an obvious effect on the proliferation of primary osteoblasts, but IL-17 exhibited an inhibitory effect on the gene expression of ALP, OCN, and Runx-2. The ALP activity and ALP mass of primary osteoblasts were downregulated by IL-17 treatment in a dose-dependent manner, and IL-17 failed to inhibit BMP-2-induced phosphorylation of Smad. Conclusion. Primary osteoblasts constitutively express IL-17 receptors, but none of C2C12 cells, MC3T3-E1 cells, and Saos-2 cells express any receptors for IL-17, IL-22, and IL-23. IL-17 inhibits BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation via the BMP/Smad-independent pathway. Jing-Ru Zhang, Dan-Dan Pang, Qiang Tong, Xia Liu, Ding-Feng Su, and Sheng-Ming Dai Copyright © 2017 Jing-Ru Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Relationship between the Antifungal Susceptibility Profile and the Production of Virulence-Related Hydrolytic Enzymes in Brazilian Clinical Strains of Candida glabrata Wed, 26 Jul 2017 04:02:34 +0000 Candida glabrata is a facultative intracellular opportunistic fungal pathogen in human infections. Several virulence-associated attributes are involved in its pathogenesis, host-pathogen interactions, modulation of host immune defenses, and regulation of antifungal drug resistance. This study evaluated the in vitro antifungal susceptibility profile to five antifungal agents, the production of seven hydrolytic enzymes related to virulence, and the relationship between these phenotypes in 91 clinical strains of C. glabrata. All C. glabrata strains were susceptible to flucytosine. However, some of these strains showed resistance to amphotericin B (9.9%), fluconazole (15.4%), itraconazole (5.5%), or micafungin (15.4%). Overall, C. glabrata strains were good producers of catalase, aspartic protease, esterase, phytase, and hemolysin. However, caseinase and phospholipase in vitro activities were not detected. Statistically significant correlations were identified between micafungin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and esterase production, between fluconazole and micafungin MIC and hemolytic activity, and between amphotericin B MIC and phytase production. These results contribute to clarify some of the C. glabrata mechanisms of pathogenicity. Moreover, the association between some virulence attributes and the regulation of antifungal resistance encourage the development of new therapeutic strategies involving virulence mechanisms as potential targets for effective antifungal drug development for the treatment of C. glabrata infections. Maria Helena Galdino Figueiredo-Carvalho, Lívia de Souza Ramos, Leonardo Silva Barbedo, Jean Carlos Almeida de Oliveira, André Luis Souza dos Santos, Rodrigo Almeida-Paes, and Rosely Maria Zancopé-Oliveira Copyright © 2017 Maria Helena Galdino Figueiredo-Carvalho et al. All rights reserved. Osteopontin Impacts West Nile virus Pathogenesis and Resistance by Regulating Inflammasome Components and Cell Death in the Central Nervous System at Early Time Points Tue, 25 Jul 2017 03:43:39 +0000 Osteopontin (OPN) is a molecule that is common in central nervous system (CNS) pathologies, which participates in the activation, migration, and survival of inflammatory cells. However, the mechanisms by which OPN modulates inflammatory pathways are not clear. To understand the role of OPN in CNS viral infections, we used a lethal mouse model of West Nile virus (WNV), characterized by the injection of high doses of the Eg101 strain of WNV, causing the increase of OPN levels in the brain since early time points. To measure the impact of OPN in neuropathogenesis and resistance, we compared C57BI/6 WT with mice lacking the OPN gene (OPN KO). OPN KO presented a significantly higher mortality compared to WT mice, detectable since day 5 pi. Our data suggests that OPN expression at early time points may provide protection against viral spread in the CNS by negatively controlling the type I IFN-sensitive, caspase 1-dependent inflammasome, while promoting an alternative caspase 8-associated pathway, to control the apoptosis of infected cells during WNV infection in the CNS. Overall, we conclude that the expression of OPN maintains a critical threshold in the innate immune response that controls apoptosis and lethal viral spread in early CNS infection. Nikki Bortell, Claudia Flynn, Bruno Conti, Howard S. Fox, and Maria Cecilia G. Marcondes Copyright © 2017 Nikki Bortell et al. All rights reserved. The Antimicrobial Peptide Human Beta-Defensin-3 Is Induced by Platelet-Released Growth Factors in Primary Keratinocytes Tue, 25 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Platelet-released growth factors (PRGF) and its related clinically used formulations (e.g., Vivostat Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF®)) contain a variety of chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors and are therefore used to support healing of chronic, hard-to-heal, or infected wounds. Human beta-defensin-3 (hBD-3) is an antimicrobial peptide inducibly expressed in human keratinocytes especially upon wounding. The potent antimicrobial activity of hBD-3 together with its wound closure-promoting activities suggests that hBD-3 may play a crucial role in wound healing. Therefore, we analyzed the influence of PRGF on hBD-3 expression in human primary keratinocytes in vitro. In addition, we investigated the influence of Vivostat PRF on hBD-3 expression in artificially generated human skin wounds in vivo. PRGF treatment of primary keratinocytes induced a significant, concentration- and time-dependent increase in hBD-3 gene expression which was partially mediated by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In line with these cell culture data, in vivo experiments revealed an enhanced hBD-3 expression in experimentally produced human wounds after the treatment with Vivostat PRF. Thus, the induction of hBD-3 may contribute to the beneficial effects of thrombocyte concentrate lysates in the treatment of chronic or infected wounds. Andreas Bayer, Justus Lammel, Mersedeh Tohidnezhad, Sebastian Lippross, Peter Behrendt, Tim Klüter, Thomas Pufe, Jochen Cremer, Holger Jahr, Franziska Rademacher, Regine Gläser, and Jürgen Harder Copyright © 2017 Andreas Bayer et al. All rights reserved. Patchoulene Epoxide Isolated from Patchouli Oil Suppresses Acute Inflammation through Inhibition of NF-κB and Downregulation of COX-2/iNOS Tue, 25 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 According to the GC-MS analysis, compositional variation was observed between samples of patchouli oil, of which an unknown compound identified as patchoulene epoxide (PAO) was found only in the long-stored oil, whose biological activity still remains unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory activity with three in vivo inflammatory models: xylene-induced ear edema, acetic acid-induced vascular permeability, and carrageenan-induced paw edema. Further investigation into its underlying mechanism on carrageenan-induced paw edema was conducted. Results demonstrated that PAO significantly inhibited the ear edema induced by xylene, lowered vascular permeability induced by acetic acid and decreased the paw edema induced by carrageenan. Moreover, PAO markedly decreased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and nitric oxide (NO), but increased levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10). PAO was also shown to significantly downregulate the protein and mRNA expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS). Western blot analysis revealed that PAO remarkably inhibited p50 and p65 translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus by suppressing IKKβ and IκBα phosphorylation. In conclusion, PAO exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity probably by suppressing the activation of iNOS, COX-2 and NF-κB signaling pathways. Jia-Li Liang, Jia-Zhen Wu, Yu-Hong Liu, Zhen-Biao Zhang, Qi-Duan Wu, Han-Bin Chen, Yan-Feng Huang, Yao-Xing Dou, Jiang-Tao Zhou, Zi-Ren Su, and Janis Ya-Xian Zhan Copyright © 2017 Jia-Li Liang et al. All rights reserved. Bisphenol A Does Not Mimic Estrogen in the Promotion of the In Vitro Response of Murine Dendritic Cells to Toll-Like Receptor Ligands Tue, 25 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Sex hormones affect immune responses and might promote autoimmunity. Endocrine disrupting chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA) may mimic their immune effects. Conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) are pivotal initiators of immune responses upon activation by danger signals coming from pathogens or distressed tissues through triggering of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We generated in vitro murine cDCs in the absence of estrogens and measured the effects of exogenously added estrogen or BPA on their differentiation and activation by the TLR ligands LPS and CpG. Estrogen enhanced the differentiation of GM-CSF-dependent cDCs from bone marrow precursors in vitro, and the selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) tamoxifen and fulvestrant blocked these effects. Moreover, estrogen augmented the upregulation of costimulatory molecules and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-12p70 and TNFα) upon stimulation by TLR9 ligand CpG, while the response to LPS was less estrogen-dependent. These effects are partially explained by an estrogen-dependent regulation of TLR9 expression. BPA did not promote cDC differentiation nor activation upon TLR stimulation. Our results suggest that estrogen promotes immune responses by increasing DC activation, with a preferential effect on TLR9 over TLR4 stimulation, and highlight the influence of estrogens in DC cultures, while BPA does not mimic estrogen in the DC functions that we tested. Marita Chakhtoura, Uma Sriram, Michelle Heayn, Joshua Wonsidler, Christopher Doyle, Joudy-Ann Dinnall, Stefania Gallucci, and Rebecca A. Roberts Copyright © 2017 Marita Chakhtoura et al. All rights reserved.