Mediators of Inflammation The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Effects of Secreted Mast Cell Mediators on Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells: Focus on Mast Cell Tryptase Thu, 29 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Numerous mast cells are present in the choroid, but the effects of mast cell mediators on retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are not well understood. We investigated the influence of mast cell mediators on RPE cells in vitro, focusing on tryptase. Expression of receptors was examined by the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We also assessed production of interleukin 8 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) after RPE cells were stimulated with mast cell mediators by using an antibody array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of tryptase on RPE cell migration and integrity by the scratch assay and the transepithelial resistance. RPE cells expressed protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), histamine receptor 1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) receptor 1, and CCR 1, 3, 4, 8, and 11. Tryptase, PAR2 agonists, histamine, and TNF-α all enhanced interleukin 8 production by RPE cells, while only tryptase enhanced VEGF production. Tryptase also enhanced expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2, resulting in increased migration of RPE cells. However, tryptase did not alter epithelial integrity or the expression of zonula occludens-1 and junctional adhesion molecule-A by RPE cells. Mast cell mediators, especially tryptase, may influence RPE cell inflammation. Rei Arai, Ayumi Usui-Ouchi, Yosuke Ito, Keitaro Mashimo, Akira Murakami, and Nobuyuki Ebihara Copyright © 2017 Rei Arai et al. All rights reserved. Helminth Products Potently Modulate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Downregulating Neuroinflammation and Promoting a Suppressive Microenvironment Wed, 28 Jun 2017 10:03:30 +0000 A negative correlation between the geographical distribution of autoimmune diseases and helminth infections has been largely associated in the last few years with a possible role for such type of parasites in the regulation of inflammatory diseases, suggesting new pathways for drug development. However, few helminth-derived immunomodulators have been tested in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of the human disease multiple sclerosis (MS). The immunomodulatory activities of Taenia crassiceps excreted/secreted products (TcES) that may suppress EAE development were sought for. Interestingly, it was discovered that TcES was able to suppress EAE development with more potency than dexamethasone; moreover, TcES treatment was still effective even when inoculated at later stages after the onset of EAE. Importantly, the TcES treatment was able to induce a range of Th2-type cytokines, while suppressing Th1 and Th17 responses. Both the polyclonal and the antigen-specific proliferative responses of lymphocytes were also inhibited in EAE-ill mice receiving TcES in association with a potent recruitment of suppressor cell populations. Peritoneal inoculation of TcES was able to direct the normal inflammatory cell traffic to the site of injection, thus modulating CNS infiltration, which may work along with Th2 immune polarization and lymphocyte activation impairment to downregulate EAE development. Alberto N. Peón, Yadira Ledesma-Soto, Jonadab E. Olguín, Marcel Bautista-Donis, Edda Sciutto, and Luis I. Terrazas Copyright © 2017 Alberto N. Peón et al. All rights reserved. Mold Alkaloid Cytochalasin D Modifies the Morphology and Secretion of fMLP-, LPS-, or PMA-Stimulated Neutrophils upon Adhesion to Fibronectin Tue, 27 Jun 2017 10:11:55 +0000 Neutrophils play an essential role in innate immunity due to their ability to migrate into infected tissues and kill microbes with bactericides located in their secretory granules. Neutrophil transmigration and degranulation are tightly regulated by actin cytoskeleton. Invading pathogens produce alkaloids that cause the depolymerization of actin, such as the mold alkaloid cytochalasin D. We studied the effect of cytochalasin D on the morphology and secretion of fMLP-, LPS-, or PMA-stimulated human neutrophils upon adhesion to fibronectin. Electron microscopy showed that the morphology of the neutrophils adherent to fibronectin in the presence of various stimuli differed. But in the presence of cytochalasin D, all stimulated neutrophils exhibited a uniform nonspread shape and developed thread-like membrane tubulovesicular extensions (cytonemes) measuring 200 nm in diameter. Simultaneous detection of neutrophil secretory products by mass spectrometry showed that all tested stimuli caused the secretion of MMP-9, a key enzyme in the neutrophil migration. Cytochalasin D impaired the MMP-9 secretion but initiated the release of cathepsin G and other granular bactericides, proinflammatory agents. The release of bactericides apparently occurs through the formation, shedding, and lysis of cytonemes. The production of alkaloids which modify neutrophil responses to stimulation via actin depolymerization may be part of the strategy of pathogen invasion. Svetlana I. Galkina, Natalia V. Fedorova, Marina V. Serebryakova, Evgenii A. Arifulin, Vladimir I. Stadnichuk, Ludmila A. Baratova, and Galina F. Sud’ina Copyright © 2017 Svetlana I. Galkina et al. All rights reserved. Cytokines in Endocrine Dysfunction of Plasma Cell Disorders Tue, 27 Jun 2017 07:05:29 +0000 Monoclonal gammopathies (MG) are classically associated with lytic bone lesions, hypercalcemia, anemia, and renal insufficiency. However, in some cases, symptoms of endocrine dysfunction are more prominent than these classical signs and misdiagnosis can thus be possible. This concerns especially the situation where the presence of M-protein is limited and the serum protein electrophoresis (sPEP) appears normal. To understand the origin of the endocrine symptoms associated with MG, we overview here the current knowledge on the complexity of interactions between cytokines and the endocrine system in MG and discuss the perspectives for both the diagnosis and treatments for this class of diseases. We also illustrate the role of major cytokines and growth factors such as IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, and VEGF in the endocrine system, as these tumor-relevant signaling molecules not only help the clonal expansion and invasion of the tumor cells but also influence cellular metabolism through autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine mechanisms. We further discuss the broader impact of these tumor environment-derived molecules and proinflammatory state on systemic hormone signaling. The diagnostic challenges and clinical work-up are illustrated from the point of view of an endocrinologist. Eva Feigerlová and Shyue-Fang Battaglia-Hsu Copyright © 2017 Eva Feigerlová and Shyue-Fang Battaglia-Hsu. All rights reserved. A Protective Role of Glibenclamide in Inflammation-Associated Injury Tue, 27 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Glibenclamide is the most widely used sulfonylurea drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Recent studies have suggested that glibenclamide reduced adverse neuroinflammation and improved behavioral outcomes following central nervous system (CNS) injury. We reviewed glibenclamide’s anti-inflammatory effects: abundant evidences have shown that glibenclamide exerted an anti-inflammatory effect in respiratory, digestive, urological, cardiological, and CNS diseases, as well as in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Glibenclamide might block KATP channel, Sur1-Trpm4 channel, and NOD-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation, decrease the production of proinflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, and reactive oxygen species), and suppress the accumulation of inflammatory cells. Glibenclamide’s anti-inflammation warrants further investigation. Gensheng Zhang, Xiuhui Lin, Shufang Zhang, Huiqing Xiu, Chuli Pan, and Wei Cui Copyright © 2017 Gensheng Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Immunomodulation of RA Patients’ PBMC with a Multiepitope Peptide Derived from Citrullinated Autoantigens Wed, 21 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Citrullinated peptides are used for measuring anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Accumulation of citrullinated proteins in the inflamed synovium suggests that they may be good targets for inducing peripheral tolerance. In view of the multiplicity of citrullinated autoantigens described as ACPA targets, we generated a multiepitope citrullinated peptide (Cit-ME) from the sequences of major citrullinated autoantigens: filaggrin, β-fibrinogen, vimentin, and collagen type II. We assessed the ability of Cit-ME or the citrullinated β60-74 fibrinogen peptide (β60-74-Fib-Cit) which bears immunodominant citrullinated epitopes (i) to modify cytokine gene expression and (ii) to modulate Treg and Th17 subsets in PBMC derived from newly diagnosed untreated RA patients. RA patient’s PBMC incubated with Cit-ME or β60-74-Fib-Cit, showed upregulation of TGF-β expression (16% and 8%, resp.), and increased CD4+Foxp3+ Treg (22% and 19%, resp.). Both peptides were shown to downregulate the TNF-α and IL-1β expression; in addition, Cit-ME reduced CD3+IL17+ T cells. We showed that citrullinated peptides can modulate the expression of anti- and proinflammatory cytokines in PBMC from RA patients as well as the proportions of Treg and Th17 cells. These results indicate that citrullinated peptides could be active in vivo and therefore might be used as immunoregulatory agents in RA patients. Smadar Gertel, Gidi Karmon, Sivan Vainer, Ora Shovman, Martin Cornillet, Guy Serre, Yehuda Shoenfeld, and Howard Amital Copyright © 2017 Smadar Gertel et al. All rights reserved. The Astrocytic S100B Protein with Its Receptor RAGE Is Aberrantly Expressed in SOD1G93A Models, and Its Inhibition Decreases the Expression of Proinflammatory Genes Tue, 20 Jun 2017 10:58:10 +0000 Neuroinflammation is one of the major players in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis, and astrocytes are significantly involved in this process. The astrocytic protein S100B can be released in pathological states activating the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Different indications point to an aberrant expression of S100B and RAGE in ALS. In this work, we observed that S100B and RAGE are progressively and selectively upregulated in astrocytes of diseased rats with a tissue-specific timing pattern, correlated to the level of neurodegeneration. The expression of the full-length and soluble RAGE isoforms could also be linked to the degree of tissue damage. The mere presence of mutant SOD1 is able to increase the intracellular levels and release S100B from astrocytes, suggesting the possibility that an increased astrocytic S100B expression might be an early occurring event in the disease. Finally, our findings indicate that the protein may exert a proinflammatory role in ALS, since its inhibition in astrocytes derived from SOD1G93A mice limits the expression of reactivity-linked/proinflammatory genes. Thus, our results propose the S100B-RAGE axis as an effective contributor to the pathogenesis of the disease, suggesting its blockade as a rational target for a therapeutic intervention in ALS. Alessia Serrano, Claudia Donno, Stefano Giannetti, Mina Perić, Pavle Andjus, Nadia D’Ambrosi, and Fabrizio Michetti Copyright © 2017 Alessia Serrano et al. All rights reserved. Cynanchum wilfordii Polysaccharides Suppress Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Acute Colitis in Mice and the Production of Inflammatory Mediators from Macrophages Tue, 20 Jun 2017 08:15:05 +0000 We recently reported the immune-enhancing effects of a high-molecular-weight fraction (HMF) of CW in macrophages and immunosuppressed mice, and this effect was attributed to a crude polysaccharide. As polysaccharides may also have anti-inflammatory functions, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and related molecular mechanisms of a crude polysaccharide (HMFO) obtained from HMF of CW in mice with dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced colitis and in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. HMFO ameliorated the pathological characteristics of colitis and significantly reduced production of proinflammatory cytokines in the serum. Histological analysis indicated that HMFO improved the signs of histological damage such as abnormal crypts, crypt loss, and inflammatory cell infiltration induced by DSS. In addition, HMFO inhibited iNOS and COX-2 protein expression, as well as phosphorylated NF-κB p65 levels in the colon tissue of mice with DSS-induced colitis. In macrophages, HMFO inhibited several cytokines and enzymes involved in inflammation such as prostaglandin E2, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 by attenuating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases. HMFO attenuated inflammation both in vitro and in vivo, primarily by inhibiting NF-κB activation. Our findings indicate that HMFO is a promising remedy for treating inflammatory bowel diseases, such as colitis. Chang-Won Cho, Sungeun Ahn, Tae-Gyu Lim, Hee-Do Hong, Young Kyoung Rhee, Deok-Chun Yang, and Mi Jang Copyright © 2017 Chang-Won Cho et al. All rights reserved. Anti-N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: A Severe, Potentially Reversible Autoimmune Encephalitis Sun, 18 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is potentially lethal, but it is also a treatable autoimmune disorder characterized by prominent psychiatric and neurologic symptoms. It is often accompanied with teratoma or other neoplasm, especially in female patients. Anti-NMDAR antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum are characteristic features of the disease, thereby suggesting a pathogenic role in the disease. Here, we summarize recent studies that have clearly documented that both clinical manifestations and the antibodies may contribute to early diagnosis and multidisciplinary care. The clinical course of the disorder is reversible and the relapse could occur in some patients. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis coexisting with demyelinating disorders makes the diagnosis more complex; thus, clinicians should be aware of the overlapping diseases. Cai-yun Liu, Jie Zhu, Xiang-Yu Zheng, Chi Ma, and Xu Wang Copyright © 2017 Cai-yun Liu et al. All rights reserved. 5-HT Drives Mortality in Sepsis Induced by Cecal Ligation and Puncture in Mice Tue, 13 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Sepsis is defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection with a high mortality. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is an important regulatory factor in inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of 5-HT on cecal ligation and puncture- (CLP-) induced sepsis in the mouse model. CLP was performed on C57B/6 wild-type (WT) mice and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) knockout (KO) mice. The results showed that the 5-HT-sufficient group mice had a significantly lower survival rate than the 5-HT-deficient group in CLP-induced sepsis and septic shock. The KO-CLP sepsis group received a lower clinical score than the WT-CLP sepsis group. Meanwhile, the body temperature of mice in the KO-CLP sepsis group was higher than that in the WT-CLP sepsis group and was much closer to the normal body temperature 24 hours after CLP. The tissue histopathology analysis revealed that 5-HT markedly exacerbated histological damages in the peritoneum, lung, liver, kidney, intestinal tissue, and heart in sepsis. Moreover, significant lower levels of TNF-α, IL-6, bacterial loads, MPO, and ROS were discovered in the KO-CLP sepsis group in contrast to the WT-CLP sepsis group. In conclusion, 5-HT drives mortality and exacerbates organ dysfunction by promoting serum cytokines and bacterial loads as well as facilitating oxidative stress in the process of sepsis. Jingyao Zhang, Jianbin Bi, Sushun Liu, Qing Pang, Ruiyao Zhang, Shun Wang, and Chang Liu Copyright © 2017 Jingyao Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Role of ARPC2 in Human Gastric Cancer Tue, 13 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Gastric cancer continues to be the second most frequent cause of cancer deaths worldwide. However, the exact molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Further research to find potential targets for therapy is critical and urgent. In this study, we found that ARPC2 promoted cell proliferation and invasion in the human cancer cell line MKN-28 using a cell total number assay, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide) assay, cell colony formation assay, migration assay, invasion assay, and wound healing assay. For downstream pathways, CTNND1, EZH2, BCL2L2, CDH2, VIM, and EGFR were upregulated by ARPC2, whereas PTEN, BAK, and CDH1 were downregulated by ARPC2. In a clinical study, we examined the expression of ARPC2 in 110 cases of normal human gastric tissues and 110 cases of human gastric cancer tissues. ARPC2 showed higher expression in gastric cancer tissues than in normal gastric tissues. In the association analysis of 110 gastric cancer tissues, ARPC2 showed significant associations with large tumor size, lymph node invasion, and high tumor stage. In addition, ARPC2-positive patients exhibited lower RFS and OS rates compared with ARPC2-negative patients. We thus identify that ARPC2 plays an aneretic role in human gastric cancer and provided a new target for gastric cancer therapy. Jun Zhang, Yi Liu, Chang-Jun Yu, Fu Dai, Jie Xiong, Hong-Jun Li, Zheng-Sheng Wu, Rui Ding, and Hong Wang Copyright © 2017 Jun Zhang et al. All rights reserved. HMGB1 and Extracellular Histones Significantly Contribute to Systemic Inflammation and Multiple Organ Failure in Acute Liver Failure Tue, 13 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Acute liver failure (ALF) is the culmination of severe liver cell injury from a variety of causes. ALF occurs when the extent of hepatocyte death exceeds the hepatic regenerative capacity. ALF has a high mortality that is associated with multiple organ failure (MOF) and sepsis; however, the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. Emerging evidence shows that ALF patients/animals have high concentrations of circulating HMGB1, which can contribute to multiple organ injuries and mediate gut bacterial translocation (BT). BT triggers/induces systemic inflammatory responses syndrome (SIRS), which can lead to MOF in ALF. Blockade of HMGB1 significantly decreases BT and improves hepatocyte regeneration in experimental acute fatal liver injury. Therefore, HMGB1 seems to be an important factor that links BT and systemic inflammation in ALF. ALF patients/animals also have high levels of circulating histones, which might be the major mediators of systemic inflammation in patients with ALF. Extracellular histones kill endothelial cells and elicit immunostimulatory effect to induce multiple organ injuries. Neutralization of histones can attenuate acute liver, lung, and brain injuries. In conclusion, HMGB1 and histones play a significant role in inducing systemic inflammation and MOF in ALF. Runkuan Yang, Xiaoping Zou, Jyrki Tenhunen, and Tor Inge Tønnessen Copyright © 2017 Runkuan Yang et al. All rights reserved. Global Autorecognition and Activation of Complement by Mannan-Binding Lectin in a Mouse Model of Type 1 Diabetes Tue, 13 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Increasing evidence links mannan-binding lectin (MBL) to late vascular complications of diabetes. MBL is a complement-activating pattern recognition molecule of the innate immune system that can mediate an inflammation response through activation of the lectin pathway. In two recent animal studies, we have shown that autoreactivity of MBL is increased in the kidney in diabetic nephropathy. We hypothesize that long-term exposure to uncontrolled high blood glucose in diabetes may mediate formation of neoepitopes in several tissues and that MBL is able to recognize these structures and thus activate the lectin pathway. To test this hypothesis, we induced diabetes by injection of low-dose streptozotocin in MBL double-knockout (MBL/DKO) mice. Development of diabetes was followed by measurements of blood glucose and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Fluorophore-labelled recombinant MBL was injected intravenously in diabetic and nondiabetic mice followed by ex vivo imaging of several organs. We observed that MBL accumulated in the heart, liver, brain, lung, pancreas, and intestines of diabetic mice. We furthermore detected increased systemic complement activation after administration of MBL, thus indicating MBL-mediated systemic complement activation in these animals. These new findings indicate a global role of MBL during late diabetes-mediated vascular complications in various tissues. Esben Axelgaard, Jakob Appel Østergaard, Saranda Haxha, Steffen Thiel, and Troels Krarup Hansen Copyright © 2017 Esben Axelgaard et al. All rights reserved. Antifungal Resistance, Metabolic Routes as Drug Targets, and New Antifungal Agents: An Overview about Endemic Dimorphic Fungi Tue, 13 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Diseases caused by fungi can occur in healthy people, but immunocompromised patients are the major risk group for invasive fungal infections. Cases of fungal resistance and the difficulty of treatment make fungal infections a public health problem. This review explores mechanisms used by fungi to promote fungal resistance, such as the mutation or overexpression of drug targets, efflux and degradation systems, and pleiotropic drug responses. Alternative novel drug targets have been investigated; these include metabolic routes used by fungi during infection, such as trehalose and amino acid metabolism and mitochondrial proteins. An overview of new antifungal agents, including nanostructured antifungals, as well as of repositioning approaches is discussed. Studies focusing on the development of vaccines against antifungal diseases have increased in recent years, as these strategies can be applied in combination with antifungal therapy to prevent posttreatment sequelae. Studies focused on the development of a pan-fungal vaccine and antifungal drugs can improve the treatment of immunocompromised patients and reduce treatment costs. Juliana Alves Parente-Rocha, Alexandre Melo Bailão, André Correa Amaral, Carlos Pelleschi Taborda, Juliano Domiraci Paccez, Clayton Luiz Borges, and Maristela Pereira Copyright © 2017 Juliana Alves Parente-Rocha et al. All rights reserved. Expression and Function of Granzymes A and B in Escherichia coli Peritonitis and Sepsis Mon, 12 Jun 2017 06:44:28 +0000 Escherichia (E.) coli is the most common causative pathogen in peritonitis, the second most common cause of sepsis. Granzymes (gzms) are serine proteases traditionally implicated in cytotoxicity and, more recently, in the inflammatory response. We here sought to investigate the role of gzms in the host response to E. coli-induced peritonitis and sepsis in vivo. For this purpose, we used a murine model of E. coli intraperitoneal infection, resembling the clinical condition commonly associated with septic peritonitis by this bacterium, in wild-type and gzmA-deficient (gzmA−/−), gzmB−/−, and gzmAxB−/−mice. GzmA and gzmB were predominantly expressed by natural killer cells, and during abdominal sepsis, the percentage of these cells expressing gzms in peritoneal lavage fluid decreased, while the amount of expression in the gzm+ cells increased. Deficiency of gzmA and/or gzmB was associated with increased bacterial loads, especially in the case of gzmB at the primary site of infection at late stage sepsis. While gzm deficiency did not impact neutrophil recruitment into the abdominal cavity, it was accompanied by enhanced nucleosome release at the primary site of infection, earlier hepatic necrosis, and more renal dysfunction. These results suggest that gzms influence bacterial growth and the host inflammatory response during abdominal sepsis caused by E. coli. M. Isabel García-Laorden, Ingrid Stroo, Sanne Terpstra, Sandrine Florquin, Jan Paul Medema, Cornelis van´t Veer, Alex F. de Vos, and Tom van der Poll Copyright © 2017 M. Isabel García-Laorden et al. All rights reserved. New Hydroxycinnamic Acid Esters as Novel 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitors That Affect Leukotriene Biosynthesis Wed, 07 Jun 2017 06:02:44 +0000 Leukotrienes are inflammatory mediators that actively participate in the inflammatory response and host defense against pathogens. However, leukotrienes also participate in chronic inflammatory diseases. 5-lipoxygenase is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes and is thus a validated therapeutic target. As of today, zileuton remains the only clinically approved 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor; however, its use has been limited due to severe side effects in some patients. Hence, the search for a better 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor continues. In this study, we investigated structural analogues of caffeic acid phenethyl ester, a naturally-occurring 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, in an attempt to enhance the inhibitory activity against 5-lipoxygenase and determine structure-activity relationships. These compounds were investigated for their ability to attenuate the biosynthesis of leukotrienes. Compounds 13 and 19, phenpropyl and diphenylethyl esters, exhibited significantly enhanced inhibitory activity when compared to the reference molecules caffeic acid phenethyl ester and zileuton. Luc H. Boudreau, Grégoire Lassalle-Claux, Marc Cormier, Sébastien Blanchard, Marco S. Doucet, Marc E. Surette, and Mohamed Touaibia Copyright © 2017 Luc H. Boudreau et al. All rights reserved. Roles of Cells from the Arterial Vessel Wall in Atherosclerosis Wed, 07 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Atherosclerosis has been identified as a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial vessel wall. Accumulating evidence indicates that different cells from the tunica intima, media, adventitia, and perivascular adipose tissue not only comprise the intact and normal arterial vessel wall but also participate all in the inflammatory response of atherosclerosis via multiple intricate pathways. For instance, endothelial dysfunction has historically been considered to be the initiator of the development of atherosclerosis. The migration and proliferation of smooth muscle cells also play a pivotal role in the progression of atherosclerosis. Additionally, the fibroblasts from the adventitia and adipocytes from perivascular adipose tissue have received considerable attention given their special functions that contribute to atherosclerosis. In addition, numerous types of cytokines produced by different cells from the arterial vessel wall, including endothelium-derived relaxing factors, endothelium-derived contracting factors, tumor necrosis factors, interleukin, adhesion molecules, interferon, and adventitium-derived relaxing factors, have been implicated in atherosclerosis. Herein, we summarize the possible roles of different cells from the entire arterial vessel wall in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Di Wang, Zhiyan Wang, Lili Zhang, and Yi Wang Copyright © 2017 Di Wang et al. All rights reserved. Syk Plays a Critical Role in the Expression and Activation of IRAK1 in LPS-Treated Macrophages Wed, 07 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0000 To address how interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) is controlled by other enzymes activated by toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, we investigated the possibility that spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), a protein tyrosine kinase that is activated at an earlier stage during TLR4 activation, plays a central role in regulating the functional activation of IRAK1. Indeed, we found that overexpression of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), an adaptor molecule that drives TLR signaling, induced IRAK1 expression and that piceatannol, a Syk inhibitor, successfully suppressed the MyD88-dependent upregulation of IRAK1 under LPS treatment conditions. Interestingly, in Syk-knockout RAW264.7 cells, IRAK1 activity was almost completely blocked after LPS treatment, while providing a Syk-recovery gene to the knockout cells successfully restored IRAK1 expression. According to our measurements of IRAK1 mRNA levels, the transcriptional upregulation of IRAK1 was induced by LPS treatment between 4 and 60 min, and this can be suppressed in Syk knockout cells, providing an effect similar that that seen under piceatannol treatment. The overexpression of Syk reverses this effect and leads to a significantly higher IRAK1 mRNA level. Collectively, our results strongly suggest that Syk plays a critical role in regulating both the activity and transcriptional level of IRAK1. Jae Gwang Park, Young-Jin Son, Byong Chul Yoo, Woo Seok Yang, Ji Hye Kim, Jong-Hoon Kim, and Jae Youl Cho Copyright © 2017 Jae Gwang Park et al. All rights reserved. Proinflammatory Cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α Increased Telomerase Activity through NF-κB/STAT1/STAT3 Activation, and Withaferin A Inhibited the Signaling in Colorectal Cancer Cells Tue, 06 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0000 There are increasing evidences of proinflammatory cytokine involvement in cancer development. Here, we found that two cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α, activated colorectal cancer cells to be more invasive and stem-like. Combined treatment of IL-6 and TNF-α phosphorylated transcription factors STAT3 in a synergistic manner. STAT3, STAT1, and NF-κB physically interacted upon the cytokine stimulation. STAT3 was bound to the promoter region of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). IL-6 and TNF-α stimulation further enhanced STAT3 binding affinity. Stem cell marker Oct-4 was upregulated in colorectal cancer cells upon IL-6 and TNF-α stimulation. Withaferin A, an anti-inflammatory steroidal lactone, inhibited the IL-6- and TNF-α-induced cancer cell invasion and decreased colonosphere formation. Notably, withaferin A inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation and abolished the STAT3, STAT1, and NF-κB interactions. Oct-4 expression was also downregulated by withaferin A inhibition. The binding of STAT3 to the hTERT promoter region and telomerase activity showed reduction with withaferin A treatments. Proinflammatory cytokine-induced cancer cell invasiveness is mediated by a STAT3-regulated mechanism in colorectal cancer cells. Our data suggest that withaferin A could be a promising anticancer agent that effectively inhibits the progression of colorectal cancer. Seyung S. Chung, Yong Wu, Quincy Okobi, Debbie Adekoya, Mohammad Atefi, Orette Clarke, Pranabananda Dutta, and Jaydutt V. Vadgama Copyright © 2017 Seyung S. Chung et al. All rights reserved. Significant Improvement Selected Mediators of Inflammation in Phenotypes of Women with PCOS after Reduction and Low GI Diet Mon, 05 Jun 2017 02:36:31 +0000 Many researchers suggest an increased risk of atherosclerosis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. In the available literature, there are no studies on the mediators of inflammation in women with PCOS, especially after dietary intervention. Eicosanoids (HETE and HODE) were compared between the biochemical phenotypes of women with PCOS (normal and high androgens) and after the 3-month reduction diet. Eicosanoid profiles (9(S)-HODE, 13(S)-HODE, 5(S)-HETE, 12(S)-HETE, 15(S)-HETE, 5(S)-oxoETE, 16(R)-HETE, 16(S)-HETE and 5(S), 6(R)-lipoxin A4, 5(S), 6(R), 15(R)-lipoxin A4) were extracted from 0.5 ml of plasma using solid-phase extraction RP-18 SPE columns. The HPLC separations were performed on a 1260 liquid chromatograph. No significant differences were found in the concentration of analysed eicosanoids in phenotypes of women with PCOS. These women, however, have significantly lower concentration of inflammatory mediators than potentially healthy women from the control group. Dietary intervention leads to a significant () increase in the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators, reaching similar levels as in the control group. The development of inflammatory reaction in both phenotypes of women with PCOS is similar. The pathways for synthesis of proinflammatory mediators in women with PCOS are dormant, but can be stimulated through a reduction diet. Three-month period of lifestyle change may be too short to stimulate the pathways inhibiting inflammatory process. Małgorzata Szczuko, Marta Zapałowska-Chwyć, Dominika Maciejewska, Arleta Drozd, Andrzej Starczewski, and Ewa Stachowska Copyright © 2017 Małgorzata Szczuko et al. All rights reserved. IL-34 Upregulated Th17 Production through Increased IL-6 Expression by Rheumatoid Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes Sun, 04 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease which is characterized by synovial inflammation and cartilage damage for which causes articular dysfunction. Activation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) is a critical step that promotes disease progression. In this study, we aimed to explore the effect of interleukin-34 (IL-34) on RA FLS as a proinflammatory factor and IL-34-stimulated FLS on the production of Th17. We found that serum IL-34 levels were increased compared to those of the healthy controls and had positive correlations with C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), rheumatoid factor (RF), and anticyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody accordingly. CSF-1R was also highly expressed on RA FLS. The interaction of IL-34 and CSF-1R promoted a dramatic production of IL-6 by FLS through JNK/P38/NF-κB signaling pathway. Further, the IL-34-stimulated IL-6 secretion by RA FLS was found to upregulate the number of Th17. The treatment of IL-6R antagonist could attenuate the production of Th17 mediated by IL-34-stimulated RA FLS. Our results suggest that the increased IL-34 levels were closely related to the disease activity of RA. Additionally, the overexpression of IL-6 in the IL-34-stimulated FLS promoted the generation of Th17. Therefore, IL-34 was supposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of RA. The inhibition of IL-34 might provide a novel target for therapies of RA. Bing Wang, Zijian Ma, Miaomiao Wang, Xiaotong Sun, Yawei Tang, Ming Li, Yan Zhang, Fang Li, and Xia Li Copyright © 2017 Bing Wang et al. All rights reserved. A Role of the ABCC4 Gene Polymorphism in Airway Inflammation of Asthmatics Sun, 04 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 4 gene encodes a transmembrane protein involved in the export of proinflammatory molecules, including leukotriene, prostaglandin, and sphingosine-1-phosphate across the plasma membrane. Those metabolites play important roles in asthma. We investigated the potential associations between ABCC4 gene polymorphisms and asthma phenotype. In total, 270 asthma patients and 120 normal healthy controls were enrolled for a genetic association study. Two polymorphisms (−1508A>G and −642C>G) in the ABCC4 promoter were genotyped. The functional variability of the promoter polymorphisms was analyzed by luciferase reporter assay. Inflammatory cytokine levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum and urinary eicosanoid metabolites, sphingosine-1-phosphate, were evaluated by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Asthma patients carrying the G allele at −1508A>G had significantly higher serum levels of periostin, myeloperoxidase, and urinary levels of 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and sphingosine-1-phosphate (, , , and , resp.) compared with noncarrier asthma patients. Luciferase activity was significantly enhanced in human epithelial A549 cells harboring a construct containing the −1508G allele ( for each) compared with a construct containing the −1508A allele. A functional polymorphism in the ABCC4 promoter, −1508A>G, may increase extracellular 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, sphingosine-1-phosphate, and periostin levels, contributing to airway inflammation in asthmatics. Sailesh Palikhe, Udval Uuganbayar, Hoang Kim Tu Trinh, Ga-Young Ban, Eun-Mi Yang, Hae-Sim Park, and Seung-Hyun Kim Copyright © 2017 Sailesh Palikhe et al. All rights reserved. Inherited Variation in Cytokine, Acute Phase Response, and Calcium Metabolism Genes Affects Susceptibility to Infective Endocarditis Sun, 04 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Infective endocarditis (IE) is a septic inflammation of the endocardium. Recognition of microbial patterns, cytokine and acute phase responses, hemostasis features, and alterations in plasma lipid and calcium profile all have been reported to affect pathogenesis and clinical course of IE. Having recruited 123 patients with IE and 300 age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched healthy blood donors, we profiled their genomic DNA for 35 functionally significant polymorphisms within the 22 selected genes involved in the abovementioned pathways, with the further genetic association analysis. We found that the G/A genotype of the rs1143634 polymorphism within the IL1B gene, the G/T genotype of the rs3212227 polymorphism within the IL12B gene, the A/G genotype of the rs1130864 polymorphism within the CRP gene, and the G allele of the rs1801197 polymorphism within the CALCR gene were associated with a decreased risk of IE whereas the T/T genotype of the rs1205 polymorphism within the CRP gene was associated with a higher risk of IE. Furthermore, heterozygous genotypes of the rs1143634 and rs3212227 polymorphisms were associated with the higher plasma levels of IL-1β and IL-12, respectively. Our results indicate that inherited variation in the cytokine, acute phase response, and calcium metabolism pathways may be linked to IE. Anastasia V. Ponasenko, Anton G. Kutikhin, Maria V. Khutornaya, Natalia V. Rutkovskaya, Natalia V. Kondyukova, Yuri N. Odarenko, Yana V. Kazachek, Anna V. Tsepokina, Leonid S. Barbarash, and Arseniy E. Yuzhalin Copyright © 2017 Anastasia V. Ponasenko et al. All rights reserved. miR-155 Promotes ox-LDL-Induced Autophagy in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells Sun, 04 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0000 As an evolutionarily conserved metabolic process, autophagy is involved in the process of atherosclerosis (AS). MicroRNA-155 (miR-155), a multifunctional miRNA, plays an important role in many physiological and pathological conditions, including AS and autophagy. However, the effect of miR-155 on the regulation of autophagy in endothelial cells has not been reported to date. Therefore, the objective of our study was to investigate the role of miR-155 in autophagy induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our results demonstrated that ox-LDL induced autophagy in HUVECs and increased the expression of miR-155 significantly. Overexpression of miR-155 improved autophagic activity, whereas low expression of miR-155 inhibited autophagic activity. Therefore, the data demonstrated that miR-155 has a modulating effect on the autophagy of vascular endothelial cells. Zhaozhi Zhang, Xudong Pan, Shaonan Yang, Aijun Ma, Kun Wang, Yuan Wang, Ting Li, and Shihai Liu Copyright © 2017 Zhaozhi Zhang et al. All rights reserved. High Glucose Level Disturbs the Resveratrol-Evoked Curtailment of CX3CL1/CX3CR1 Signaling in Human Placental Circulation Thu, 01 Jun 2017 08:59:59 +0000 Hyperglycemia-induced hyperactivity of chemokine CX3CL1 (fractalkine) occurs in the human placenta. Anti-inflammatory/antioxidant activities of resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) are related to the modulation of chemokine CX3CL1 and its receptor, CX3CR1, signaling pathways. We examined the influence of high glucose (25 mmol/L glucose; HG group; ) on resveratrol-mediated effects on CX3CL1 and TNF-α production by the placental lobule, CX3CR1 expression and contents of CX3CR1, TNF-α receptor 1 (TNFR1), and NF-κB proteins in placental tissue. The placental lobules perfused under normoglycemic conditions formed the control NG group (). Resveratrol (50 and 100 μM; subgroups B and C) administered into the perfusion fluid lowered the production of both CX3CL1 and TNF-α. The reductions in CX3CL1 levels were more evident in the NG group. CX3CR1 expression was significantly higher in the NG subgroups B and C compared to the HG subgroups B and C (385.2 and 426.5% versus 199.3 and 282.4%, resp.). An increase in CX3CR1 protein content in placental lysates was observed in the NG subgroups B and C. Also, resveratrol significantly decreased NF-κBp65 protein content only in the NG group, not affecting hyperglycemia-elicited TNFR1 upregulation. In conclusion, euglycemia assures optimal effects of resveratrol pertaining to CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling in the placenta. Future studies on resveratrol are needed, especially those including maternal-fetal risk assessments. Dariusz Szukiewicz, Michal Pyzlak, Grzegorz Szewczyk, Aleksandra Stangret, Seweryn Trojanowski, Michal Bachanek, Wojciech Braksator, and Jaroslaw Wejman Copyright © 2017 Dariusz Szukiewicz et al. All rights reserved. Risk of Tuberculosis Reactivation in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis, Ankylosing Spondylitis, and Psoriatic Arthritis Receiving Non-Anti-TNF-Targeted Biologics Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Tuberculosis (TB) still represents an important issue for public health in underdeveloped countries, but the use of antitumor necrosis factor agents (anti-TNF) for the treatment of inflammatory rheumatic disorders has reopened the problem also in countries with low TB incidence, due to the increased risk of TB reactivation in subjects with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Over the last 5 years, several non-anti-TNF-targeted biologics have been licensed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriatic arthritis. We reviewed the epidemiology of TB, the role of different cytokines and of the immune system cells involved in the immune response against TB infection, the methods to detect LTBI, and the risk of TB reactivation in patients exposed to non-anti-TNF-targeted biologics. Given the limited role exerted by the cytokines different from TNF, as expected, data from controlled trials, national registries of biologics, and postmarketing surveillance show that the risk of TB reactivation in patients receiving non-anti-TNF-targeted biologics is negligible, hence raising the question whether the screening procedures for LTBI would be necessary. Fabrizio Cantini, Carlotta Nannini, Laura Niccoli, Linda Petrone, Giuseppe Ippolito, and Delia Goletti Copyright © 2017 Fabrizio Cantini et al. All rights reserved. Proteases Revisited: Roles and Therapeutic Implications in Fibrosis Wed, 31 May 2017 05:16:51 +0000 Proteases target many substrates, triggering changes in distinct biological processes correlated with cell migration, EMT/EndMT and fibrosis. Extracellular protease activity, demonstrated by secreted and membrane-bound protease forms, leads to ECM degradation, activation of other proteases (i.e., proteolysis of nonactive zymogens), decomposition of cell-cell junctions, release of sequestered growth factors (TGF-β and VEGF), activation of signal proteins and receptors, degradation of inflammatory inhibitors or inflammation-related proteins, and changes in cell mechanosensing and motility. Intracellular proteases, mainly caspases and cathepsins, modulate lysosome activity and signal transduction pathways. Herein, we discuss the current knowledge on the multidimensional impact of proteases on the development of fibrosis. Jakub Kryczka and Joanna Boncela Copyright © 2017 Jakub Kryczka and Joanna Boncela. All rights reserved. MCL Plays an Anti-Inflammatory Role in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Induced Immune Response by Inhibiting NF-κB and NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation Wed, 31 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains a significant menace to global health as it induces granulomatous lung lesions and systemic inflammatory responses during active tuberculosis (TB). Micheliolide (MCL), a sesquiterpene lactone, was recently reported to have a function of relieving LPS-induced inflammatory response, but the regulative role of MCL on the immunopathology of TB still remains unknown. In this experiment, we examined the inhibitory effect of MCL on Mtb-induced inflammatory response in mouse macrophage-like cell line Raw264.7 by downregulating the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and NLRP3 inflammasome. Evidences showed that MCL decreased the secretion of Mtb-induced inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, MCL dramatically suppressed Mtb-induced activation of iNOS and COX2 as well as subsequent production of NO. Furthermore, MCL inhibited Mtb-induced phosphorylation of Akt (Ser 473) in Raw264.7. According to our results, MCL plays an important role in modulating Mtb-induced inflammatory response through PI3K/Akt/NF-κB pathway and subsequently downregulating the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. Therefore, MCL may represent as a potential drug candidate in the adjuvant treatment of TB by regulating host immune response. Qingwen Zhang, Xinru Jiang, Weigang He, Kailin Wei, Jinxia Sun, Xiangyang Qin, Yuejuan Zheng, and Xin Jiang Copyright © 2017 Qingwen Zhang et al. All rights reserved. In Situ Cytokine Expression and Morphometric Evaluation of Total Collagen and Collagens Type I and Type III in Keloid Scars Tue, 30 May 2017 07:22:52 +0000 Keloids are characterized by excessive collagen deposition and growth beyond the edges of the initial injury, and cytokines may be related to their formation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the collagen fibers, analyze in situ expression of cytokines in keloid lesions, and compare to the control group. Results showed that there was a predominance of women and nonwhite and direct black ancestry. Keloid showed a significant increase in total and type III collagen. Significantly, the expression of mRNA for TGF-β in keloid was increased, the expressions of IFN-γ, IFN-γR1, and IL-10 were lower, and IFN-γR1 and TNF-α had no statistical difference. Correlations between collagen type III and TGF-β mRNA expression were positive and significant, IFN-γ, IFN-γR1, and IL-10 were negative and significant, and TNF-α showed no statistical difference. We conclude that there was a significant increase of total collagen in keloid and predominance of collagen type III compared to the controls, showing keloid as an immature lesion. There is a significant increase in TGF-β mRNA in keloid lesions, and a significant decrease in IFN-γ and IL-10, suggesting that these cytokines are related to keloid lesions. Isabela Rios da Silva, Luciana Colombo Rodrigues da Cunha Tiveron, Marcos Vinicius da Silva, Alberto Borges Peixoto, Carla Aparecida Xavier Carneiro, M. A. dos Reis, Pedro Carvalho Furtado, Bárbara Rocha Rodrigues, Virmondes Rodrigues Jr., and Denise Bertulucci Rocha Rodrigues Copyright © 2017 Isabela Rios da Silva et al. All rights reserved. Danhong Huayu Koufuye Prevents Diabetic Retinopathy in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats via Antioxidation and Anti-Inflammation Tue, 30 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Danhong Huayu Koufuye (DHK), a traditional Chinese prescription, is used to treat central retinal vein occlusion clinically. We previously reported that DHK prevented diabetic retinopathy (DR) in rats. Moreover, we found that it protected endothelial cells from hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis through antioxidation and anti-inflammation. Here, we investigated whether antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of DHK contributed to its therapeutic effect on DR in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats. DHK significantly blocked the breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) and increased the thickness of the inner nuclear layer (INL), as well as suppressed the swelling of the ganglion cell layer (GCL) in diabetic retinas. DHK remarkably increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in plasma, and decreased serum level of nitric oxide (NO). Moreover, DHK markedly reduced the serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Furthermore, DHK significantly downregulated protein expressions of VEGF and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and mRNA expression of ICAM-1 in retinas. These results suggest that the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of DHK may be important mechanisms involved in the protective effect of DHK on DR in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Wenpei Chen, Xiaolan Yao, Chenghao Zhou, Ziyang Zhang, Gang Gui, and Baoqin Lin Copyright © 2017 Wenpei Chen et al. All rights reserved.