Mediators of Inflammation The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Implication of Ceramide Kinase in Adipogenesis Thu, 20 Jul 2017 06:27:14 +0000 Ceramide kinase (CerK) plays a critical role in the regulation of cell growth and survival and has been implicated in proinflammatory responses. In this work, we demonstrate that CerK regulates adipocyte differentiation, a process associated with obesity, which causes chronic low-grade inflammation. CerK was upregulated during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into mature adipocytes. Noteworthy, knockdown of CerK using specific siRNA to silence the gene encoding this kinase resulted in substantial decrease of lipid droplet formation and potent depletion in the content of triacylglycerols in the adipocytes. Additionally, CerK knockdown caused blockade of leptin secretion, an adipokine that is crucial for regulation of energy balance in the organism and that is increased in the obese state. Moreover, CerK gene silencing decreased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), which is considered the master regulator of adipogenesis. It can be concluded that CerK is a novel regulator of adipogenesis, an action that may have potential implications in the development of obesity, and that targeting this kinase may be beneficial for treatment of obesity-associated diseases. Marta Ordoñez, Natalia Presa, Miguel Trueba, and Antonio Gomez-Muñoz Copyright © 2017 Marta Ordoñez et al. All rights reserved. Platelet-Released Growth Factors Induce Differentiation of Primary Keratinocytes Thu, 20 Jul 2017 03:22:58 +0000 Autologous thrombocyte concentrate lysates, for example, platelet-released growth factors, (PRGFs) or their clinically related formulations (e.g., Vivostat PRF®) came recently into the physicians’ focus as they revealed promising effects in regenerative and reparative medicine such as the support of healing of chronic wounds. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we analyzed the influence of PRGF and Vivostat PRF on human keratinocyte differentiation in vitro and on epidermal differentiation status of skin wounds in vivo. Therefore, we investigated the expression of early (keratin 1 and keratin 10) and late (transglutaminase-1 and involucrin) differentiation markers. PRGF treatment of primary human keratinocytes decreased keratin 1 and keratin 10 gene expression but induced involucrin and transglutaminase-1 gene expression in an epidermal growth factor receptor- (EGFR-) dependent manner. In concordance with these results, microscopic analyses revealed that PRGF-treated human keratinocytes displayed morphological features typical of keratinocytes undergoing terminal differentiation. In vivo treatment of artificial human wounds with Vivostat PRF revealed a significant induction of involucrin and transglutaminase-1 gene expression. Together, our results indicate that PRGF and Vivostat PRF induce terminal differentiation of primary human keratinocytes. This potential mechanism may contribute to the observed beneficial effects in the treatment of hard-to-heal wounds with autologous thrombocyte concentrate lysates in vivo. Andreas Bayer, Mersedeh Tohidnezhad, Justus Lammel, Sebastian Lippross, Peter Behrendt, Tim Klüter, Thomas Pufe, Holger Jahr, Jochen Cremer, Franziska Rademacher, Regine Gläser, and Jürgen Harder Copyright © 2017 Andreas Bayer et al. All rights reserved. MBD2 Regulates Th17 Cell Differentiation and Experimental Severe Asthma by Affecting IRF4 Expression Thu, 20 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Th17 cells and IL-17 participate in airway neutrophil infiltration characteristics in the pathogenesis of severe asthma. Methyl-CpG binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) expression increased in CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood samples of asthma patients. However, little is known about that epigenetic regulation of MBD2 in both immunological pathogenesis of experimental severe asthma and CD4+ T cell differentiation. Here, we established a neutrophil-predominant severe asthma model, which was characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), BALF neutrophil granulocyte (NEU) increase, higher NEU and IL-17 protein levels, and more Th17 cell differentiation. In the model, MBD2 and IRF4 protein expression increased in the lung and spleen cells. Under overexpression or silencing of the MBD2 and IRF4 gene, the differentiation of Th17 cells and IL-17 secretion showed positive changes. IRF4 protein expression showed a positive change with overexpression or silencing of the MBD2 gene, whereas there was no significant difference in the expression of MBD2 under overexpression or silencing of the IRF4 gene. These data provide novel insights into epigenetic regulation of severe asthma. Aijun Jia, Yueling Wang, Wenjin Sun, Bing Xiao, Yan Wei, Lulu Qiu, Lin Mu, Li Xu, Jianmin Li, Xiufeng Zhang, Da Liu, Cong Peng, Dongshan Zhang, and Xudong Xiang Copyright © 2017 Aijun Jia et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Acupoint Stimulation on Inflammatory Response in Patients Undergoing Limb Ischemia-Reperfusion Wed, 19 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Reperfusion after tourniquet use can induce inflammation and cause remote organ injury. We evaluated the therapeutic effect of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) on inflammatory mediators and lung function in patients receiving lower limb tourniquets. Forty patients undergoing unilateral lower extremity surgery with tourniquet were randomly assigned to two groups: the TEAS group and ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) group. The C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and arterial blood gas analysis were measured preoperatively and 6 h after tourniquet removal. The levels of CXCL8, IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, and CCL2 were significantly increased compared to baseline values in both groups, but the increase was significantly smaller in the TEAS group. In the TEAS group, the partial pressure of oxygen and arterial-alveolar oxygen tension ratio were significantly decreased, and the alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference and respiratory index were significantly increased, compared to those in the I/R group at 6 h after reperfusion. In conclusion, TEAS diminished the upregulation of proinflammatory factors in response to lower limb ischemia-reperfusion and improved pulmonary gas exchange. Yunchang Mo, Sijia Chen, Lili Yang, Ledan Huang, Dan Jin, Zhi Yu, Leilei Wang, Liangrong Wang, Shan Luo, and Junlu Wang Copyright © 2017 Yunchang Mo et al. All rights reserved. S1P Provokes Tumor Lymphangiogenesis via Macrophage-Derived Mediators Such as IL-1β or Lipocalin-2 Wed, 19 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 A pleiotropic signaling lipid, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), has been implicated in various pathophysiological processes supporting tumor growth and metastasis. However, there are only a few descriptive studies suggesting a role of S1P in tumor lymphangiogenesis, which is critical for tumor growth and dissemination. Corroborating own data, the literature suggests that apoptotic tumor cell-derived S1P alters the phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) to gain protumor functions. However, mechanistically, the role of TAM-induced lymphangiogenesis has only been poorly described, mostly linked to the production of lymphangiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) and VEGF-D, or transdifferentiation into lymphatic endothelial cells. Recent findings highlight a rather underappreciated role of S1P in tumor lymphangiogenesis, referring to the production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and lipocalin-2 (LCN2) by a tumor-promoting macrophage phenotype. In this review, we aim to provide to the readers with the current understanding of the molecular mechanism how apoptotic cell-derived S1P triggers TAMs to promote lymphangiogenesis. Shahzad N. Syed, Michaela Jung, Andreas Weigert, and Bernhard Brüne Copyright © 2017 Shahzad N. Syed et al. All rights reserved. Chemical Chaperone of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Inhibits Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Induced by TGF-β1 in Airway Epithelium via the c-Src Pathway Wed, 19 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a biological process that allows epithelial cells to assume a mesenchymal cell phenotype. EMT is considered as a therapeutic target for several persistent inflammatory airway diseases related to tissue remodeling. Herein, we investigated the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and c-Src in TGF-β1-induced EMT. A549 cells, primary nasal epithelial cells (PNECs), and inferior nasal turbinate organ cultures were exposed to 4-phenylbutylic acid (4PBA) or PP2 and then stimulated with TGF-β1. We found that E-cadherin, vimentin, fibronectin, and α-SMA expression was increased in nasal polyps compared to inferior turbinates. TGF-β1 increased the expression of EMT markers such as E-cadherin, fibronectin, vimentin, and α-SMA and ER stress markers (XBP-1s and GRP78), an effect that was blocked by PBA or PP2 treatment. 4-PBA and PP2 also blocked the effect of TGF-β1 on migration of A549 cells and suppressed TGF-β1-induced expression of EMT markers in PNECs and organ cultures of inferior turbinate. In conclusion, we demonstrated that 4PBA inhibits TGF-β1-induced EMT via the c-Src pathway in A549 cells, PNECs, and inferior turbinate organ cultures. These results suggest an important role for ER stress and a diverse role for TGF-β1 in upper airway chronic inflammatory disease such as CRS. Heung-Man Lee, Ju-Hyung Kang, Jae-Min Shin, Seoung-Ae Lee, and Il-Ho Park Copyright © 2017 Heung-Man Lee et al. All rights reserved. DAMPs Synergize with Cytokines or Fibronectin Fragment on Inducing Chondrolysis but Lose Effect When Acting Alone Tue, 18 Jul 2017 04:16:38 +0000 Objective and Design. To investigate whether endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) or alarmins originated from mitochondria or nucleus stimulates inflammatory response in articular chondrocytes to cause chondrolysis which leads to cartilage degradation featured in posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Materials. Primary cultures of bovine or human chondrocytes isolated from cartilage of weight-bearing joints. Treatment. Chondrocytes were subjected to mitochondrial DAMPs (MTDs) or HMGB1, a nuclear DAMP (NuD), with or without the presence of an N-terminal 29 kDa fibronectin fragment (Fn-f) or proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α). Injured cartilage-conditioned culturing medium containing a mixture of DAMPs was employed as a control. After 24 hrs, the protein expression of cartilage degrading metalloproteinases and iNOS in culture medium or cell lysates was examined with Western blotting, respectively. Results. HMGB1 was synergized with IL-1β in upregulating expression of MMP-3, MMP-13, ADAMTS-5, ADAM-8, and iNOS. Moreover, a moderate synergistic effect was detected between HMGB1 and Fn-f or between MTDs and TNF-α on MMP-3 expression. However, when acting alone, MTDs or HMGB1 did not upregulate cartilage degrading enzymes or iNOS. Conclusion. MTDs or HMGB1 could only stimulate inflammatory response in chondrocytes with the presence of cytokines or Fn-f. Lei Ding, Joseph A. Buckwalter, and James A. Martin Copyright © 2017 Lei Ding et al. All rights reserved. Growth Differentiation Factor 15 May Predict Mortality of Peripheral and Coronary Artery Diseases and Correlate with Their Risk Factors Mon, 17 Jul 2017 10:02:14 +0000 Plasma GDF15 concentrations were measured in 612 Taiwanese individuals without overt systemic disease. Clinical parameters, GDF15 genetic variants, and 22 biomarker levels were analyzed. We further enrolled 86 patients with PAD and 481 patients with CAD, who received endovascular intervention and coronary angiography, respectively, to examine the role of GDF15 level in predicting all-cause mortality. Significant associations were found between GDF15 genotypes/haplotypes and GDF15 levels. The circulating GDF15 level was positively associated with age, smoking, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus as well as circulating levels of lipocalin 2 and various biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that baseline GDF15 levels of above 3096 pg/mL and 1123 pg/mL were strong predictors of death for patients with PAD and CAD, respectively ( and ). GDF15 more accurately reclassified 17.3% and 29.2% of patients with PAD and CAD, respectively ( and ), compared to C-reactive protein. Both genetic and nongenetic factors, including cardiometabolic and inflammatory markers and adipokines, were significantly associated with GDF15 level. A high level of GDF15 was significantly associated with an increase of all-cause mortality in patients with high-risk PAD and in patients with angiographically documented CAD. Lung-An Hsu, Semon Wu, Jyh-Ming Jimmy Juang, Fu-Tien Chiang, Ming-Sheng Teng, Jeng-Feng Lin, Hsuan-Li Huang, and Yu-Lin Ko Copyright © 2017 Lung-An Hsu et al. All rights reserved. Development and Characterisation of a Novel NF-κB Reporter Cell Line for Investigation of Neuroinflammation Sun, 16 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Aberrant activation of the transcription factor NF-κB, as well as uncontrolled inflammation, has been linked to autoimmune diseases, development and progression of cancer, and neurological disorders like Alzheimer’s disease. Reporter cell lines are a valuable state-of-the art tool for comparative analysis of in vitro drug screening. However, a reporter cell line for the investigation of NF-κB-driven neuroinflammation has not been available. Thus, we developed a stable neural NF-κB-reporter cell line to assess the potency of proinflammatory molecules and peptides, as well as anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals. We used lentivirus to transduce the glioma cell line U251-MG with a tandem NF-κB reporter construct containing GFP and firefly luciferase allowing an assessment of NF-κB activity via fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and luminometry. We observed a robust activation of NF-κB after exposure of the reporter cell line to tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and amyloid-β peptide [1-42] as well as to LPS derived from Salmonella minnesota and Escherichia coli. Finally, we demonstrate that the U251-NF-κB-GFP-Luc reporter cells can be used for assessing the anti-inflammatory potential of pharmaceutical compounds using Bay11-7082 and IMD0354. In summary, our newly generated cell line is a robust and cost-efficient tool to study pro- and anti-inflammatory potential of drugs and biologics in neural cells. Marie-Theres Zeuner, Thomas Vallance, Sakthivel Vaiyapuri, Graeme S. Cottrell, and Darius Widera Copyright © 2017 Marie-Theres Zeuner et al. All rights reserved. A Role for CD154, the CD40 Ligand, in Granulomatous Inflammation Wed, 12 Jul 2017 06:10:07 +0000 Granulomatous inflammation is a distinctive form of chronic inflammation in which predominant cells include macrophages, epithelioid cells, and multinucleated giant cells. Mechanisms regulating granulomatous inflammation remain ill-understood. CD154, the ligand of CD40, is a key mediator of inflammation. CD154 confers a proinflammatory phenotype to macrophages and controls several macrophagic functions. Here, we studied the contribution of CD154 in a mouse model of toxic liver injury with carbon tetrachloride and a model of absorbable suture graft. In both models, granulomas are triggered in response to endogenous persistent liver calcified necrotic lesions or by grafted sutures. CD154-deficient mice showed delayed clearance of carbon tetrachloride-induced liver calcified necrotic lesions and impaired progression of suture-induced granuloma. In vitro, CD154 stimulated phagocytosis of opsonized erythrocytes by macrophages, suggesting a potential mechanism for the altered granulomatous inflammation in CD154KO mice. These results suggest that CD154 may contribute to the natural history of granulomatous inflammation. Julien Villeneuve, Alexis Desmoulière, Antoine Dewitte, Nelly Bordeau, Pierre Costet, Laia Bassaganyas, Jean-Christophe Fricain, Jean Ripoche, and Sébastien Lepreux Copyright © 2017 Julien Villeneuve et al. All rights reserved. Morita-Baylis-Hillman Adducts Display Anti-Inflammatory Effects by Modulating Inflammatory Mediator Expression in RAW264.7 Cells Wed, 12 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Inflammatory response plays an important role not only in the normal physiology but also in pathologies such as cancers. The Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts (MBHA) are a novel group of synthetic molecules that have demonstrated many biological activities against some parasitic cells such as Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania amazonensis, and Leishmania chagasi, and antimitotic activity against sea urchin embryonic cells was also related. However, little is known about the mechanisms induced by MBHA in inflammatory process and its relation with anticancer activity. The present work investigated the cytotoxicity of three MBHA derivatives (A2CN, A3CN, and A4CN), on human colorectal adenocarcinoma, HT-29 cells, and their anti-inflammatory activities were examined in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells, being these derivatives potentially cytotoxic to HT-29 cells. Coincubation with A2CN, A3CN, or A4CN and LPS in RAW264.7 cells inhibited NO production, as well as the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also repressed. The mRNA expressions of IL-1β and IL-6 were significantly downregulated by such MBHA compounds in RAW264.7 cells, but only A2CN was able to inhibit the COX-2 gene expression. We also showed that MBHA compounds decreased almost to zero the production of IL-1β and IL-6. These findings display that such MBHA compounds exhibit anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. Glaucia V. Faheina-Martins, Jacqueline Alves Leite, Bruna Braga Dantas, Cláudio G. Lima-Júnior, Mário L. A. A. Vasconcellos, Sandra Rodrigues-Mascarenhas, and Demetrius A. M. Araújo Copyright © 2017 Glaucia V. Faheina-Martins et al. All rights reserved. Cytokines in Autoimmune Disease Tue, 11 Jul 2017 10:37:24 +0000 Qingdong Guan, Xiaoling Gao, Junhui Wang, Yu Sun, and Sudhanshu Shekhar Copyright © 2017 Qingdong Guan et al. All rights reserved. The Clinical Significance of Increased Serum Proinflammatory Cytokines, C-Reactive Protein, and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate in Patients with Hidradenitis Suppurativa Mon, 10 Jul 2017 04:21:58 +0000 Objectives. To assess inflammatory serum markers including serum proinflammatory cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) according to the clinical inflammatory activity of patients with hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). Patients and Methods. Seventy-four patients with HS were studied based on the Hidradenitis Suppurativa-Physician Global Assessment (HS-PGA) score and Hurley staging system. Proinflammatory cytokines were measured using a multiplex cytokine assay. Twenty-two healthy volunteers were recruited. Results. Serum interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-23, soluble tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) receptor I (sTNF-RI), CRP, and ESR were different in the patients with HS compared with those in the healthy controls (). The levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-17A, sTNF-RII, CRP, and ESR were significantly elevated according to inflammatory activity based on HS-PGA scores (, ). The levels of IL-6 (, ), CRP (, ), and ESR (, ) were especially well correlated with clinical inflammatory activity based on HS-PGA scores. The levels of IL-6, IL-8, sTNF-RI, sTNF-RII, CRP, and ESR were significantly elevated according to Hurley staging system. Conclusions. Serum proinflammatory cytokines, CRP, and ESR are increased in relation to the clinical inflammatory activity of patients with HS compared with healthy controls. Serum IL-6, CRP, and ESR are effective biomarkers for evaluating the severity of HS. D. Jiménez-Gallo, R. de la Varga-Martínez, L. Ossorio-García, C. Albarrán-Planelles, C. Rodríguez, and M. Linares-Barrios Copyright © 2017 D. Jiménez-Gallo et al. All rights reserved. Osteopontin at the Crossroads of Inflammation and Tumor Progression Sun, 09 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Complex interactions between tumor and host cells regulate systemic tumor dissemination, a process that begins early at the primary tumor site and goes on until tumor cells detach themselves from the tumor mass and start migrating into the blood or lymphatic vessels. Metastatic cells colonize the target organs and are capable of surviving and growing at distant sites. In this context, osteopontin (OPN) appears to be a key determinant of the crosstalk between cancer cells and the host microenvironment, which in turn modulates immune evasion. OPN is overexpressed in several human carcinomas and has been implicated in inflammation, tumor progression, and metastasis. Thus, it represents one of the most attracting targets for cancer therapy. Within the tumor mass, OPN is secreted in various forms either by the tumor itself or by stroma cells, and it can exert either pro- or antitumorigenic effects according to the cell type and tumor microenvironment. Thus, targeting OPN for therapeutic purposes needs to take into account the heterogeneous functions of the multiple OPN forms with regard to cancer formation and progression. In this review, we will describe the role of systemic, tumor-derived, and stroma-derived OPN, highlighting its pivotal role at the crossroads of inflammation and tumor progression. Luigi Mario Castello, Davide Raineri, Livia Salmi, Nausicaa Clemente, Rosanna Vaschetto, Marco Quaglia, Massimiliano Garzaro, Sergio Gentilli, Paolo Navalesi, Vincenzo Cantaluppi, Umberto Dianzani, Anna Aspesi, and Annalisa Chiocchetti Copyright © 2017 Luigi Mario Castello et al. All rights reserved. Cytokine Kinetics in Febrile Neutropenic Children: Insights on the Usefulness as Sepsis Biomarkers, Influence of Filgrastim, and Behavior of the IL-23/IL-17 Pathway Sun, 09 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Background. The study aimed to describe the kinetics of various cytokines from day 1 to day 14 of the onset of fever in neutropenic children and to evaluate their performances as discriminators of sepsis in the first 24 hours of fever, the possible influence of filgrastim, and the functioning of the IL-23/IL-17 axis. Methods. IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-12/23p40, IL-21, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, G-CSF, and GM-CSF were measured in plasma on days 1, 2, 3, 5, and 14 from the onset of fever in 35 patients. Results. Thirteen patients (37.1%) developed sepsis. In mixed models, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and G-CSF showed higher estimated means in septic patients (), and IL-12/23p40 and IL-17 in nonseptic patients (). On day 1, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 appeared upregulated in patients who received filgrastim. Only IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and procalcitonin were useful as discriminators of sepsis. Associating the markers with each other or to a risk assessment model improved performance. Conclusions. Cytokines kinetics showed proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses similar to what is described in nonneutropenic patients. IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, and procalcitonin are useful as early biomarkers of sepsis. Filgrastim upregulates expression of these markers, and we observed deficiency in the IL-23-IL-17 axis accompanying sepsis. Orlei Ribeiro de Araujo, Reinaldo Salomão, Milena Karina Coló Brunialti, Dafne Cardoso Bourguignon da Silva, Andreza Almeida Senerchia, Fabianne Altruda de Moraes Costa Carlesse, and Antonio Sergio Petrilli Copyright © 2017 Orlei Ribeiro de Araujo et al. All rights reserved. Elevation of Platelet and Monocyte Activity Markers of Atherosclerosis in Haemodialysis Patients Compared to Peritoneal Dialysis Patients Sun, 09 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Purpose. The predominant cause of mortality in dialysis patients are cardiovascular events. Platelet and monocyte activity markers play an important role in cardiovascular mortality and were assessed and related to dialysis quality criteria in haemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Methods. For this prospective comparative study, HD patients () and PD patients () were included. In whole blood samples, surface expression of CD62P and CD40L on platelets, tissue factor binding on monocytes, and platelet-monocyte aggregates were measured by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of MCP-1, IL-6, TNFα, and soluble CD40L were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. Haemodialysis patients showed a significantly higher CD62P expression on platelets (), significantly higher amount of platelet-monocyte aggregates (), and significantly more tissue factor binding on monocytes () compared to PD patients. In PD patients, a significant correlation between Kt/V and platelet CD40L expression (; 0.001) and between Kt/V and platelet CD62P expression (; ) was observed, while there was no significant correlation between Kt/V and tissue factor binding on monocytes and platelet-monocyte aggregates, respectively. Conclusion. Platelet and monocyte activity markers are higher in HD patients in comparison with those in PD patients, possibly suggesting a higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Ksenija Stach, Susanne Karb, Ibrahim Akin, Martin Borggrefe, Bernhard Krämer, Thorsten Kälsch, and Anna-Isabelle Kälsch Copyright © 2017 Ksenija Stach et al. All rights reserved. Metabolic Syndrome, Inflammation, and Cancer Thu, 06 Jul 2017 02:16:26 +0000 Yong Wu, Yunzhou Dong, Shengzhong Duan, Donghui Zhu, and Lin Deng Copyright © 2017 Yong Wu et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Metalloproteinase-8 Levels in Crevicular Fluid of Patients with Healthy Implants or Periodontitis Wed, 05 Jul 2017 03:50:07 +0000 Evaluation of periodontal and peri-implant tissue condition is mainly based on clinical examination and imaging diagnostics. Some data imply that Metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) level examination in peri-implant sulcular fluid (PISF) might be useful for evaluating the condition of peri-implant tissues and monitoring a development of peri-implant inflammation, including both mucositis and peri-implantitis. Hence, in this study, we decided to evaluate the level of MMP-8 in PISF obtained from patients without clinical symptoms of mucositis or peri-implantitis and compare it with MMP-8 level in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) obtained from patients with healthy periodontium and those with varying severity of periodontitis. A total of 189 subjects were included in the study, and GCF/PISF samples were analysed for MMP-8 level by ELISA test. We documented that MMP-8 level in PISF obtained from patients without symptoms of mucositis or peri-implantitis was significantly higher not only than in GCF of periodontally healthy patients but also, which seems to be very interesting, than in GCF of patients with varying degrees of periodontal inflammation, consistent with earlier studies. Our observation might imply that monitoring of MMP-8 level in PISF could help to diagnose mucositis/peri-implantitis in an early stage, prior to clinical manifestations, which may allow for quick start of appropriate therapy. Paweł Aleksandrowicz, Paulina Żelechowska, Justyna Agier, Katarzyna Starska, Krzysztof Kędzierski, Joanna Wysokińska-Miszczuk, and Ewa Brzezińska-Błaszczyk Copyright © 2017 Paweł Aleksandrowicz et al. All rights reserved. Immunometabolism: Molecular Mechanisms, Diseases, and Therapies 2016 Wed, 05 Jul 2017 02:08:18 +0000 Jose C. Rosa Neto, Fabio S. Lira, Soumen Roy, and William Festuccia Copyright © 2017 Jose C. Rosa Neto et al. All rights reserved. Acinetobacter baumannii Lipopolysaccharide Influences Adipokine Expression in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes Wed, 05 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most important nosocomial opportunistic pathogen worldwide. In addition, obesity has been associated with an increased risk of nosocomial infection, suggesting that there may be an association between A. baumannii and white adipose tissue. However, the effects of A. baumannii on adipocytes have not been well studied at the molecular level. Here, we investigated the potential role of A. baumannii-derived lipopolysaccharides (LPS) as signaling molecules that affect adipocyte functionality. We tested the effect of increasing concentrations of A. baumannii-derived LPS (10, 100, or 1000 ng/mL) on the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell line. Exposure to LPS was found to increase the expression of several adipokines (e.g., MIP-2, MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-6, lipocalin-2, and FABP4) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and significantly reduced the expression of leptin and adiponectin. The effects of A. baumannii-derived LPS on MIP-2 expression were similar in comparison with that of LPS prepared from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli in our cell culture-based system. This study suggests that A. baumannii-derived LPS functions as a signaling molecule that impacts the inflammatory function of white adipose tissue on the level of gene expression. Yuka Unno, Yoshinori Sato, Satoshi Nishida, Akiyo Nakano, Ryuichi Nakano, Tsuneyuki Ubagai, and Yasuo Ono Copyright © 2017 Yuka Unno et al. All rights reserved. Chemokines (CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5) Inhibit ATP-Induced Release of IL-1β by Monocytic Cells Wed, 05 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Chemokines and ATP are among the mediators of inflammatory sites that can enter the circulation via damaged blood vessels. The main function of chemokines is leukocyte mobilization, and ATP typically triggers inflammasome assembly. IL-1β, a potent inflammasome-dependent cytokine of innate immunity, is essential for pathogen defense. However, excessive IL-1β may cause life-threatening systemic inflammation. Here, we hypothesize that chemokines control ATP-dependent secretion of monocytic IL-1β. Lipopolysaccharide-primed human monocytic U937 cells were stimulated with the P2X7 agonist BzATP for 30 min to induce IL-1β release. CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5 dose dependently inhibited BzATP-stimulated release of IL-1β, whereas CXCL16 was ineffective. The effect of CCL3 was confirmed for primary mononuclear leukocytes. It was blunted after silencing CCR1 or calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) by siRNA and was sensitive to antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing subunits α7 and α9. U937 cells secreted small factors in response to CCL3 that mediated the inhibition of IL-1β release. We suggest that CCL chemokines inhibit ATP-induced release of IL-1β from U937 cells by a triple-membrane-passing mechanism involving CCR, iPLA2, release of small mediators, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits α7 and α9. We speculate that whenever chemokines and ATP enter the circulation concomitantly, systemic release of IL-1β is minimized. Anca-Laura Amati, Anna Zakrzewicz, Kathrin Siebers, Sigrid Wilker, Sarah Heldmann, Dariusz Zakrzewicz, Andreas Hecker, J. Michael McIntosh, Winfried Padberg, and Veronika Grau Copyright © 2017 Anca-Laura Amati et al. All rights reserved. Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated with Increased Osteocalcin Levels in Acute Aortic Dissection: A Pilot Study on Elderly Patients Sun, 02 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 An imbalance between degradation and reconstruction of the aortic wall is one of the leading causes of acute aortic dissection (AAD). Vitamin D seems an intriguing molecule to explore in the field of AAD since it improves endothelial function and protects smooth muscle cells from inflammation-induced remodeling, calcification, and loss of function, all events which are strongly related to the aging process. We quantified 25-hydroxy vitamin D, calcium, parathormone, bone alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin levels in 24 elderly AAD patients to identify a potential pathological implication of these molecules in AAD. Median 25-hydroxy vitamin D (10.75 ng/mL, 25th–75th percentiles: 6.86–19.23 ng/mL) and calcium levels (8.70 mg/dL, 25th–75th percentiles: 7.30–8.80 mg/dL) suggested hypovitaminosis D and a moderate hypocalcemia. Thirty-eight percent of AAD patients had severe (<10 ng/mL), 38% moderate (10–20 ng/mL), and 24% mild 25-hydroxy vitamin D deficiency (20–30 ng/mL). A significant inverse correlation was observed between 25OHD and osteocalcin levels. All the other molecules were unchanged. A condition of hypovitaminosis D associated to an increase in osteocalcin levels is present in AAD patients. The identification of these molecules as new factors involved in AAD may be helpful to identify individuals at high risk as well to study preventing strategies. Elena Vianello, Elena Dozio, Alessandra Barassi, Lorenza Tacchini, John Lamont, Santi Trimarchi, Massimiliano M. Marrocco-Trischitta, and Massimiliano M. Corsi Romanelli Copyright © 2017 Elena Vianello et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Secreted Mast Cell Mediators on Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells: Focus on Mast Cell Tryptase Thu, 29 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Numerous mast cells are present in the choroid, but the effects of mast cell mediators on retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are not well understood. We investigated the influence of mast cell mediators on RPE cells in vitro, focusing on tryptase. Expression of receptors was examined by the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We also assessed production of interleukin 8 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) after RPE cells were stimulated with mast cell mediators by using an antibody array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of tryptase on RPE cell migration and integrity by the scratch assay and the transepithelial resistance. RPE cells expressed protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), histamine receptor 1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) receptor 1, and CCR 1, 3, 4, 8, and 11. Tryptase, PAR2 agonists, histamine, and TNF-α all enhanced interleukin 8 production by RPE cells, while only tryptase enhanced VEGF production. Tryptase also enhanced expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2, resulting in increased migration of RPE cells. However, tryptase did not alter epithelial integrity or the expression of zonula occludens-1 and junctional adhesion molecule-A by RPE cells. Mast cell mediators, especially tryptase, may influence RPE cell inflammation. Rei Arai, Ayumi Usui-Ouchi, Yosuke Ito, Keitaro Mashimo, Akira Murakami, and Nobuyuki Ebihara Copyright © 2017 Rei Arai et al. All rights reserved. Helminth Products Potently Modulate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Downregulating Neuroinflammation and Promoting a Suppressive Microenvironment Wed, 28 Jun 2017 10:03:30 +0000 A negative correlation between the geographical distribution of autoimmune diseases and helminth infections has been largely associated in the last few years with a possible role for such type of parasites in the regulation of inflammatory diseases, suggesting new pathways for drug development. However, few helminth-derived immunomodulators have been tested in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of the human disease multiple sclerosis (MS). The immunomodulatory activities of Taenia crassiceps excreted/secreted products (TcES) that may suppress EAE development were sought for. Interestingly, it was discovered that TcES was able to suppress EAE development with more potency than dexamethasone; moreover, TcES treatment was still effective even when inoculated at later stages after the onset of EAE. Importantly, the TcES treatment was able to induce a range of Th2-type cytokines, while suppressing Th1 and Th17 responses. Both the polyclonal and the antigen-specific proliferative responses of lymphocytes were also inhibited in EAE-ill mice receiving TcES in association with a potent recruitment of suppressor cell populations. Peritoneal inoculation of TcES was able to direct the normal inflammatory cell traffic to the site of injection, thus modulating CNS infiltration, which may work along with Th2 immune polarization and lymphocyte activation impairment to downregulate EAE development. Alberto N. Peón, Yadira Ledesma-Soto, Jonadab E. Olguín, Marcel Bautista-Donis, Edda Sciutto, and Luis I. Terrazas Copyright © 2017 Alberto N. Peón et al. All rights reserved. Mold Alkaloid Cytochalasin D Modifies the Morphology and Secretion of fMLP-, LPS-, or PMA-Stimulated Neutrophils upon Adhesion to Fibronectin Tue, 27 Jun 2017 10:11:55 +0000 Neutrophils play an essential role in innate immunity due to their ability to migrate into infected tissues and kill microbes with bactericides located in their secretory granules. Neutrophil transmigration and degranulation are tightly regulated by actin cytoskeleton. Invading pathogens produce alkaloids that cause the depolymerization of actin, such as the mold alkaloid cytochalasin D. We studied the effect of cytochalasin D on the morphology and secretion of fMLP-, LPS-, or PMA-stimulated human neutrophils upon adhesion to fibronectin. Electron microscopy showed that the morphology of the neutrophils adherent to fibronectin in the presence of various stimuli differed. But in the presence of cytochalasin D, all stimulated neutrophils exhibited a uniform nonspread shape and developed thread-like membrane tubulovesicular extensions (cytonemes) measuring 200 nm in diameter. Simultaneous detection of neutrophil secretory products by mass spectrometry showed that all tested stimuli caused the secretion of MMP-9, a key enzyme in the neutrophil migration. Cytochalasin D impaired the MMP-9 secretion but initiated the release of cathepsin G and other granular bactericides, proinflammatory agents. The release of bactericides apparently occurs through the formation, shedding, and lysis of cytonemes. The production of alkaloids which modify neutrophil responses to stimulation via actin depolymerization may be part of the strategy of pathogen invasion. Svetlana I. Galkina, Natalia V. Fedorova, Marina V. Serebryakova, Evgenii A. Arifulin, Vladimir I. Stadnichuk, Ludmila A. Baratova, and Galina F. Sud’ina Copyright © 2017 Svetlana I. Galkina et al. All rights reserved. Cytokines in Endocrine Dysfunction of Plasma Cell Disorders Tue, 27 Jun 2017 07:05:29 +0000 Monoclonal gammopathies (MG) are classically associated with lytic bone lesions, hypercalcemia, anemia, and renal insufficiency. However, in some cases, symptoms of endocrine dysfunction are more prominent than these classical signs and misdiagnosis can thus be possible. This concerns especially the situation where the presence of M-protein is limited and the serum protein electrophoresis (sPEP) appears normal. To understand the origin of the endocrine symptoms associated with MG, we overview here the current knowledge on the complexity of interactions between cytokines and the endocrine system in MG and discuss the perspectives for both the diagnosis and treatments for this class of diseases. We also illustrate the role of major cytokines and growth factors such as IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, and VEGF in the endocrine system, as these tumor-relevant signaling molecules not only help the clonal expansion and invasion of the tumor cells but also influence cellular metabolism through autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine mechanisms. We further discuss the broader impact of these tumor environment-derived molecules and proinflammatory state on systemic hormone signaling. The diagnostic challenges and clinical work-up are illustrated from the point of view of an endocrinologist. Eva Feigerlová and Shyue-Fang Battaglia-Hsu Copyright © 2017 Eva Feigerlová and Shyue-Fang Battaglia-Hsu. All rights reserved. A Protective Role of Glibenclamide in Inflammation-Associated Injury Tue, 27 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Glibenclamide is the most widely used sulfonylurea drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Recent studies have suggested that glibenclamide reduced adverse neuroinflammation and improved behavioral outcomes following central nervous system (CNS) injury. We reviewed glibenclamide’s anti-inflammatory effects: abundant evidences have shown that glibenclamide exerted an anti-inflammatory effect in respiratory, digestive, urological, cardiological, and CNS diseases, as well as in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Glibenclamide might block KATP channel, Sur1-Trpm4 channel, and NOD-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation, decrease the production of proinflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, and reactive oxygen species), and suppress the accumulation of inflammatory cells. Glibenclamide’s anti-inflammation warrants further investigation. Gensheng Zhang, Xiuhui Lin, Shufang Zhang, Huiqing Xiu, Chuli Pan, and Wei Cui Copyright © 2017 Gensheng Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Immunomodulation of RA Patients’ PBMC with a Multiepitope Peptide Derived from Citrullinated Autoantigens Wed, 21 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Citrullinated peptides are used for measuring anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Accumulation of citrullinated proteins in the inflamed synovium suggests that they may be good targets for inducing peripheral tolerance. In view of the multiplicity of citrullinated autoantigens described as ACPA targets, we generated a multiepitope citrullinated peptide (Cit-ME) from the sequences of major citrullinated autoantigens: filaggrin, β-fibrinogen, vimentin, and collagen type II. We assessed the ability of Cit-ME or the citrullinated β60-74 fibrinogen peptide (β60-74-Fib-Cit) which bears immunodominant citrullinated epitopes (i) to modify cytokine gene expression and (ii) to modulate Treg and Th17 subsets in PBMC derived from newly diagnosed untreated RA patients. RA patient’s PBMC incubated with Cit-ME or β60-74-Fib-Cit, showed upregulation of TGF-β expression (16% and 8%, resp.), and increased CD4+Foxp3+ Treg (22% and 19%, resp.). Both peptides were shown to downregulate the TNF-α and IL-1β expression; in addition, Cit-ME reduced CD3+IL17+ T cells. We showed that citrullinated peptides can modulate the expression of anti- and proinflammatory cytokines in PBMC from RA patients as well as the proportions of Treg and Th17 cells. These results indicate that citrullinated peptides could be active in vivo and therefore might be used as immunoregulatory agents in RA patients. Smadar Gertel, Gidi Karmon, Sivan Vainer, Ora Shovman, Martin Cornillet, Guy Serre, Yehuda Shoenfeld, and Howard Amital Copyright © 2017 Smadar Gertel et al. All rights reserved. The Astrocytic S100B Protein with Its Receptor RAGE Is Aberrantly Expressed in SOD1G93A Models, and Its Inhibition Decreases the Expression of Proinflammatory Genes Tue, 20 Jun 2017 10:58:10 +0000 Neuroinflammation is one of the major players in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis, and astrocytes are significantly involved in this process. The astrocytic protein S100B can be released in pathological states activating the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Different indications point to an aberrant expression of S100B and RAGE in ALS. In this work, we observed that S100B and RAGE are progressively and selectively upregulated in astrocytes of diseased rats with a tissue-specific timing pattern, correlated to the level of neurodegeneration. The expression of the full-length and soluble RAGE isoforms could also be linked to the degree of tissue damage. The mere presence of mutant SOD1 is able to increase the intracellular levels and release S100B from astrocytes, suggesting the possibility that an increased astrocytic S100B expression might be an early occurring event in the disease. Finally, our findings indicate that the protein may exert a proinflammatory role in ALS, since its inhibition in astrocytes derived from SOD1G93A mice limits the expression of reactivity-linked/proinflammatory genes. Thus, our results propose the S100B-RAGE axis as an effective contributor to the pathogenesis of the disease, suggesting its blockade as a rational target for a therapeutic intervention in ALS. Alessia Serrano, Claudia Donno, Stefano Giannetti, Mina Perić, Pavle Andjus, Nadia D’Ambrosi, and Fabrizio Michetti Copyright © 2017 Alessia Serrano et al. All rights reserved. Cynanchum wilfordii Polysaccharides Suppress Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Acute Colitis in Mice and the Production of Inflammatory Mediators from Macrophages Tue, 20 Jun 2017 08:15:05 +0000 We recently reported the immune-enhancing effects of a high-molecular-weight fraction (HMF) of CW in macrophages and immunosuppressed mice, and this effect was attributed to a crude polysaccharide. As polysaccharides may also have anti-inflammatory functions, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and related molecular mechanisms of a crude polysaccharide (HMFO) obtained from HMF of CW in mice with dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced colitis and in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. HMFO ameliorated the pathological characteristics of colitis and significantly reduced production of proinflammatory cytokines in the serum. Histological analysis indicated that HMFO improved the signs of histological damage such as abnormal crypts, crypt loss, and inflammatory cell infiltration induced by DSS. In addition, HMFO inhibited iNOS and COX-2 protein expression, as well as phosphorylated NF-κB p65 levels in the colon tissue of mice with DSS-induced colitis. In macrophages, HMFO inhibited several cytokines and enzymes involved in inflammation such as prostaglandin E2, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 by attenuating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases. HMFO attenuated inflammation both in vitro and in vivo, primarily by inhibiting NF-κB activation. Our findings indicate that HMFO is a promising remedy for treating inflammatory bowel diseases, such as colitis. Chang-Won Cho, Sungeun Ahn, Tae-Gyu Lim, Hee-Do Hong, Young Kyoung Rhee, Deok-Chun Yang, and Mi Jang Copyright © 2017 Chang-Won Cho et al. 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