Mediators of Inflammation http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Inhibitory Effect of Loranthus parasiticus on IgE-Mediated Allergic Responses in RBL-2H3 Cells Tue, 27 Sep 2016 12:20:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/8742562/ The mistletoe Loranthus parasiticus has been used as a compound for traditional medicine in Northeast Asia for a long time and is known to possess neuroprotective action. Nonetheless, the effect of Loranthus parasiticus on allergic responses remains unknown. In the present study, we evaluated whether the water extract of Loranthus parasiticus (LPE) could inhibit IgE-mediated allergic responses in RBL-2H3 cells. LPE inhibited the release of β-hexosaminidase (IC50, 184.5 μg/mL) and the formation of tumor necrosis factor-α (IC50, 84.27 μg/mL), interleukin-4 (IC50, 93.43 μg/mL), prostaglandin E2 (IC50, 84.10 μg/mL), prostaglandin D2, and leukotriene C4 (IC50, 43.27 μg/mL) in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, LPE inhibited phosphorylation of Syk, PLCγ1/2, PKCδ, ERK, JNK, p38, and Akt. In the late phase, LPE decreased 5-lipoxygenase phosphorylation and COX-2 expression but not cPLA2 phosphorylation. Additionally, LPE included total phenolic compounds (10.72 mg/g dry weight) and total flavonoids (56.20 mg/g dry weight). These results suggest that the phenolic compounds or flavonoids contained in LPE may be associated with antiallergic activity. The phenolic compounds and flavonoids in LPE are antiallergic phytochemicals capable of inhibiting the activation of the FcεRI signaling cascade in mast cells. Such effects may provide further information for the development of a phytomedicine for allergic diseases. Jae-Myung Yoo, Ju-Hye Yang, Young Soo Kim, Won-Kyung Cho, and Jin Yeul Ma Copyright © 2016 Jae-Myung Yoo et al. All rights reserved. Addition of Sodium Pyruvate to Stored Red Blood Cells Attenuates Liver Injury in a Murine Transfusion Model Mon, 26 Sep 2016 16:37:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/3549207/ RBCs undergo numerous changes during storage and stored RBCs may induce adverse effects, ultimately resulting in organ injury in transfusion recipients. We tested the hypothesis that the addition of SP to stored RBCs would improve the quality of the stored RBCs and mitigate liver injury after transfusion in a murine model. RBCs were harvested from C57BL/6J mice and stored for 14 days in CPDA-1 containing either a solution of SP in saline or saline alone. Haemolysis, the 24-hour posttransfusion recovery, the oxygen-carrying capacity, and the SOD activity of stored RBCs were evaluated. The plasma biochemistry, hepatic MDA level, MPO activity, IL-6, TNF-α concentrations, and histopathology were measured two hours after the transfusion of stored RBCs. Compared with RBCs stored in CPDA-1 and saline, the addition of SP to stored RBCs restored their oxygen-carrying capacity and SOD activity, reduced the AST activity, BUN concentrations, and LDH activity in the plasma, and decreased the MDA level, MPO activity, and concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α in the liver. These data indicate that the addition of SP to RBCs during storage has a beneficial effect on storage lesions in vitro and subsequently alleviates liver injury after the transfusion of stored RBCs in vivo. Sha Xia, Gan Chen, Bo Wang, Yujing Yin, Zhenwei Sun, Jingxiang Zhao, Penglong Li, Lian Zhao, and Hong Zhou Copyright © 2016 Sha Xia et al. All rights reserved. mTORC1-Activated Monocytes Increase Tregs and Inhibit the Immune Response to Bacterial Infections Mon, 26 Sep 2016 08:58:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/7369351/ The TSC1/2 heterodimer, a key upstream regulator of the mTOR, can inhibit the activation of mTOR, which plays a critical role in immune responses after bacterial infections. Monocytes are an innate immune cell type that have been shown to be involved in bacteremia. However, how the mTOR pathway is involved in the regulation of monocytes is largely unknown. In our study, TSC1 KO mice and WT mice were infected with E. coli. When compared to WT mice, we found higher mortality, greater numbers of bacteria, decreased expression of coactivators in monocytes, increased numbers of Tregs, and decreased numbers of effector T cells in TSC1 KO mice. Monocytes obtained from TSC1 KO mice produced more ROS, IL-6, IL-10, and TGF-β and less IL-1, IFN-γ, and TNF-α. Taken together, our results suggest that the inhibited immune functioning in TSC1 KO mice is influenced by mTORC1 activation in monocytes. The reduced expression of coactivators resulted in inhibited effector T cell proliferation. mTORC1-activated monocytes are harmful during bacterial infections. Therefore, inhibiting mTORC1 signaling through rapamycin administration could rescue the harmful aspects of an overactive immune response, and this knowledge provides a new direction for clinical therapy. Lijun Fang, Huaijun Tu, Wei Guo, Shixuan Wang, Ting Xue, Fei Yang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Yazhi Yang, Qian Wan, Zhexin Shi, Xulong Zhan, and Jian Li Copyright © 2016 Lijun Fang et al. All rights reserved. From Placenta to Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: The Role of Adipokines Mon, 26 Sep 2016 06:16:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/4981916/ Adipokines are cytokines produced mainly by adipose tissue, besides many other tissues such as placenta, ovaries, peripheral-blood mononuclear cells, liver, muscle, kidney, heart, and bone marrow. Adipokines play a significant role in the metabolic syndrome and in cardiovascular diseases, have implications in regulating insulin sensitivity and inflammation, and have significant effects on growth and reproductive function. The objective of this review was to analyze the functions known today of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and visfatin from placenta throughout childhood and adolescence. It is well known now that their serum concentrations during pregnancy and lactation have long-term effects beyond the fetus and newborn. With regard to puberty, adipokines are involved in the regulation of the relationship between nutritional status and normal physiology or disorders of puberty and altered gonadal function, as, for example, premature pubarche and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Cytokines are involved in the maturation of oocytes and in the regular progression of puberty and pregnancy. Chiara Sartori, Pietro Lazzeroni, Silvia Merli, Viviana Dora Patianna, Francesca Viaroli, Francesca Cirillo, Sergio Amarri, and Maria Elisabeth Street Copyright © 2016 Chiara Sartori et al. All rights reserved. Exosomes and Exosomal miRNA in Respiratory Diseases Sun, 25 Sep 2016 13:42:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/5628404/ Exosomes are nanosized vesicles released from every cell in the body including those in the respiratory tract and lungs. They are found in most body fluids and contain a number of different biomolecules including proteins, lipids, and both mRNA and noncoding RNAs. Since they can release their contents, particularly miRNAs, to both neighboring and distal cells, they are considered important in cell-cell communication. Recent evidence has shown their possible importance in the pathogenesis of several pulmonary diseases. The differential expression of exosomes and of exosomal miRNAs in disease has driven their promise as biomarkers of disease enabling noninvasive clinical diagnosis in addition to their use as therapeutic tools. In this review, we summarize recent advances in this area as applicable to pulmonary diseases. Shamila D. Alipoor, Esmaeil Mortaz, Johan Garssen, Masoud Movassaghi, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, and Ian M. Adcock Copyright © 2016 Shamila D. Alipoor et al. All rights reserved. High-Methionine Diet Attenuates Severity of Arthritis and Modulates IGF-I Related Gene Expressions in an Adjuvant Arthritis Rats Model Sun, 25 Sep 2016 13:33:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/9280529/ Rheumatoid arthritis, a synthesized form of adjuvant arthritis exhibited throughout many animal species, inhibits liver function and circulation of IGF-I and contributes to the degradation of skeletal muscle mass. One of the primary goals of the present study is determining whether a high-Methionine (high-Met) diet is capable of reducing the adverse effects of arthritis, namely, loss of body mass. Following adjuvant injection, forty arthritic rats were randomly assigned to either a control group with a basal diet or a high-Met group with the same basal diet + 0.5% Methionine. After 14 days all rats were terminated. The high-Met group exhibited an increase in body weight and food intake in comparison with the control group (). High-Met diet debilitated arthritis-induced surges in the gastrocnemius in both atrogin-1 and the MuRF1 expressions; however, it was observed to have little to no effect on atrogin-1 and MuRF1 gene expression in soleus. At the same time, high-Met diet rats experienced a rise in IGF-I, with lowering of IGFBP-3 gene expression in the gastrocnemius and the soleus. These data suggest that arthritis severity can be partly attenuated by high-Met diet. Mingxin Li, Lidong Zhai, and Wanfu Wei Copyright © 2016 Mingxin Li et al. All rights reserved. Resolvin E1 Inhibits Substance P-Induced Potentiation of TRPV1 in Primary Sensory Neurons Sun, 25 Sep 2016 11:54:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/5259321/ The neuropeptide substance P (SP) is expressed in primary sensory neurons and is commonly regarded as a “pain” neurotransmitter. Upon peripheral inflammation, SP activates the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor and potentiates activity of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), which is coexpressed by nociceptive neurons. Therefore, SP functions as an important neurotransmitter involved in the hypersensitization of inflammatory pain. Resolvin E1 (RvE1), derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inhibits TRPV1 activity via activation of the chemerin 23 receptor (ChemR23)—an RvE1 receptor located in dorsal root ganglion neurons—and therefore exerts an inhibitory effect on inflammatory pain. We demonstrate here that RvE1 regulates the SP-induced potentiation of TRPV1 via G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) on peripheral nociceptive neurons. SP-induced potentiation of TRPV1 inhibited by RvE1 was blocked by the Gαi-coupled GPCR inhibitor pertussis toxin and the G-protein inhibitor GDPβ-S. These results indicate that a low concentration of RvE1 strongly inhibits the potentiation of TRPV1, induced by the SP-mediated activation of NK-1, via a GPCR signaling pathway activated by ChemR23 in nociceptive neurons. RvE1 might represent a new therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory pain as a prospective endogenous inhibitor that strongly inhibits TRPV1 activity associated with peripheral inflammation. Youn Yi Jo, Ji Yeon Lee, and Chul-Kyu Park Copyright © 2016 Youn Yi Jo et al. All rights reserved. CYLD Promotes TNF-α-Induced Cell Necrosis Mediated by RIP-1 in Human Lung Cancer Cells Sun, 25 Sep 2016 09:24:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/1542786/ Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Cylindromatosis (CYLD) is a deubiquitination enzyme and contributes to the degradation of ubiquitin chains on RIP1. The aim of the present study is to investigate the levels of CYLD in lung cancer patients and explore the molecular mechanism of CYLD in the lung cancer pathogenesis. The levels of CYLD were detected in human lung cancer tissues and the paired paracarcinoma tissues by real-time PCR and western blotting analysis. The proliferation of human lung cancer cells was determined by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis and necrosis were determined by FACS assay. The results demonstrated that low levels of CYLD were detected in clinical lung carcinoma specimens. Three pairs of siRNA were used to knock down the endogenous CYLD in lung cancer cells. Knockdown of CYLD promoted cell proliferation of lung cancer cells. Otherwise overexpression of CYLD induced TNF-α-induced cell death in A549 cells and H460 cells. Moreover, CYLD-overexpressed lung cancer cells were treated with 10 μM of z-VAD-fmk for 12 hours and the result revealed that TNF-α-induced cell necrosis was significantly enhanced. Additionally, TNF-α-induced cell necrosis in CYLD-overexpressed H460 cells was mediated by receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP-1) kinase. Our findings suggested that CYLD was a potential target for the therapy of human lung cancers. Xing Lin, Qianshun Chen, Chen Huang, and Xunyu Xu Copyright © 2016 Xing Lin et al. All rights reserved. Folic Acid Is Able to Polarize the Inflammatory Response in LPS Activated Microglia by Regulating Multiple Signaling Pathways Sun, 25 Sep 2016 07:25:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/5240127/ We investigated the ability of folic acid to modulate the inflammatory responses of LPS activated BV-2 microglia cells and the signal transduction pathways involved. To this aim, the BV-2 cell line was exposed to LPS as a proinflammatory response inducer, in presence or absence of various concentrations of folic acid. The production of nitric oxide (NO) was determined by the Griess test. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and IL-10 were determined by ELISA. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS), nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65, MAPKs protein, and suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1 and SOCS3 were analyzed by western blotting. TNF-α and IL-1β, as well as iNOS dependent NO production, resulted significantly inhibited by folic acid pretreatment in LPS-activated BV-2 cells. We also observed that folic acid dose-dependently upregulated both SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression in BV-2 cells, leading to an increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Finally, p-IκBα, which indirectly reflects NF-κB complex activation, and JNK phosphorylation resulted dose-dependently downregulated by folic acid pretreatment of LPS-activated cells, whereas p38 MAPK phosphorylation resulted significantly upregulated by folic acid treatment. Overall, these results demonstrated that folic acid was able to modulate the inflammatory response in microglia cells, shifting proinflammatory versus anti-inflammatory responses through regulating multiple signaling pathways. Antonia Cianciulli, Rosaria Salvatore, Chiara Porro, Teresa Trotta, and Maria Antonietta Panaro Copyright © 2016 Antonia Cianciulli et al. All rights reserved. Is Low Serum Vitamin D Associated with Early Dental Implant Failure? A Retrospective Evaluation on 1625 Implants Placed in 822 Patients Thu, 22 Sep 2016 12:45:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/5319718/ Aim. To investigate whether there is a correlation between early dental implant failure and low serum levels of vitamin D. Methods. All patients treated with dental implants in a single centre, in the period 2003–2015, were considered for enrollment in this study. The main outcome was early implant failure. The influence of patient-related variables on implant survival was calculated using the Chi-square test. Results. 822 patients treated with 1625 implants were selected for this study; 27 early failures (3.2%) were recorded. There was no link between gender, age, smoking, history of periodontitis, and an increased incidence of early failures. Statistical analysis reported 9 early failures (2.2%) in patients with serum levels of vitamin D > 30 ng/mL, 16 early failures (3.9%) in patients with levels between 10 and 30 ng/mL, and 2 early failures (9.0%) in patients with levels <10 ng/mL. Although there was an increasing trend in the incidence of early implant failures with the worsening of vitamin D deficiency, the difference between these 3 groups was not statistically significant (). Conclusions. This study failed in proving an effective link between low serum levels of vitamin D and an increased risk of early implant failure. Further studies are needed to investigate this topic. Francesco Mangano, Carmen Mortellaro, Natale Mangano, and Carlo Mangano Copyright © 2016 Francesco Mangano et al. All rights reserved. Serum Cytokines Th1, Th2, and Th17 Expression Profiling in Active Lupus Nephritis-IV: From a Southern Chinese Han Population Thu, 22 Sep 2016 10:40:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/4927530/ Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by aberrant T cell immune response. Diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis (LN-IV) is the most common, severe, and active form of lupus nephritis. In this study, we investigated the production of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines in prediction of active form of LN-IV. ProcartaPlex multiplex immunoassays panels were used for detection of serum Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines profiling. Th1 and Th17 cytokines (IL-18, IFN-γ, IL-12p70, IL-6, and IL-17A) were considerably expressed in the serum of lupus nephritis IV patients in comparison to the healthy control. However, only IL18 and IL6 were higher in class IV versus class III lupus nephritis. Importantly, the ratios of Th1/Th2 (IL-18/IL-4) and Th17/Th2 (IL-17A/IL-4) were significantly elevated in LN-IV when compared with LN-III, LN-V, and healthy controls. Consistently, the serum cytokines IL-18, IL-17A, and IFN-γ were markedly expressed in LN-IV patient glomeruli and interstitial tissue compared to other classes of LN by IHC. ROC further suggests that IL-18 was a potential marker for LN-IV. The data from our study suggests that the early detection and quantification of these cytokines may help in prediction of active form of LN-IV. Keshav Raj Sigdel, Lihua Duan, Yin Wang, Weiping Hu, Ning Wang, Qingyi Sun, Qingyan Liu, Xiaocong Liu, Xianghua Hou, Ao Cheng, Guixiu Shi, and Yanlin Zhang Copyright © 2016 Keshav Raj Sigdel et al. All rights reserved. Intraplaque Expression of C-Reactive Protein Predicts Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Severe Atherosclerotic Carotid Artery Stenosis Wed, 21 Sep 2016 13:48:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/9153673/ Serum c-reactive protein (CRP) was suggested for the assessment of intermediate cardiovascular (CV) risk. Here, systemic or intraplaque CRP levels were investigated as predictors of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in patients with severe carotid stenosis. CRP levels were assessed in the serum and within different portions (upstream and downstream) of carotid plaques of 217 patients undergoing endarterectomy. The association between CRP and intraplaque lipids, collagen, neutrophils, smooth muscle cells (SMC), and macrophage subsets was determined. No correlation between serum CRP and intraplaque biomarkers was observed. In upstream portions, CRP content was directly correlated with intraplaque neutrophils, total macrophages, and M1 macrophages and inversely correlated with SMC content. In downstream portions, intraplaque CRP correlated with M1 and M2 macrophages. According to the cut-off point (CRP > 2.9%) identified by ROC analysis in upstream portions, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with high CRP levels had a greater rate of MACEs. This risk of MACEs increased independently of age, male gender, serum CRP, and statin use. In conclusion, in patients with severe carotid artery stenosis, high CRP levels within upstream portions of carotid plaques directly and positively correlate with intraplaque inflammatory cells and predict MACEs at an 18-month follow-up period. Aldo Bonaventura, François Mach, Aline Roth, Sébastien Lenglet, Fabienne Burger, Karim J. Brandt, Aldo Pende, Maria Bertolotto, Giovanni Spinella, Bianca Pane, Domenico Palombo, Franco Dallegri, Michele Cea, Nicolas Vuilleumier, Fabrizio Montecucco, and Federico Carbone Copyright © 2016 Aldo Bonaventura et al. All rights reserved. Macrophages and Neutrophils: Regulation of the Inflammatory Microenvironment in Autoimmunity and Cancer Tue, 20 Sep 2016 09:39:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/5894347/ Michal A. Rahat, Seth B. Coffelt, Zvi Granot, Munitta Muthana, and Amedeo Amedei Copyright © 2016 Michal A. Rahat et al. All rights reserved. Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperon Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid Attenuates Aldosterone-Infused Renal Injury Mon, 19 Sep 2016 09:35:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/4387031/ Aldosterone (Aldo) is critically involved in the development of renal injury via the production of reactive oxygen species and inflammation. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is also evoked in Aldo-induced renal injury. In the present study, we investigated the role of ER stress in inflammation-mediated renal injury in Aldo-infused mice. C57BL/6J mice were randomized to receive treatment for 4 weeks as follows: vehicle infusion, Aldo infusion, vehicle infusion plus tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), and Aldo infusion plus TUDCA. The effect of TUDCA on the Aldo-infused inflammatory response and renal injury was investigated using periodic acid-Schiff staining, real-time PCR, Western blot, and ELISA. We demonstrate that Aldo leads to impaired renal function and inhibition of ER stress via TUDCA attenuates renal fibrosis. This was indicated by decreased collagen I, collagen IV, fibronectin, and TGF-β expression, as well as the downregulation of the expression of Nlrp3 inflammasome markers, Nlrp3, ASC, IL-1β, and IL-18. This paper presents an important role for ER stress on the renal inflammatory response to Aldo. Additionally, the inhibition of ER stress by TUDCA negatively regulates the levels of these inflammatory molecules in the context of Aldo. Honglei Guo, Hongmei Li, Lilu Ling, Yong Gu, and Wei Ding Copyright © 2016 Honglei Guo et al. All rights reserved. Kinin Peptides Enhance Inflammatory and Oxidative Responses Promoting Apoptosis in a Parkinson’s Disease Cellular Model Sun, 18 Sep 2016 16:09:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/4567343/ Kinin peptides ubiquitously occur in nervous tissue and participate in inflammatory processes associated with distinct neurological disorders. These substances have also been demonstrated to promote the oxidative stress. On the other hand, the importance of oxidative stress and inflammation has been emphasized in disorders that involve the neurodegenerative processes such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). A growing number of reports have demonstrated the increased expression of kinin receptors in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, the effect of bradykinin and des-Arg10-kallidin, two representative kinin peptides, was analyzed with respect to inflammatory response and induction of oxidative stress in a PD cellular model, obtained after stimulation of differentiated SK-N-SH cells with a neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium. Kinin peptides caused an increased cytokine release and enhanced production of reactive oxygen species and NO by cells. These changes were accompanied by a loss of cell viability and a greater activation of caspases involved in apoptosis progression. Moreover, the neurotoxin and kinin peptides altered the dopamine receptor 2 expression. Kinin receptor expression was also changed by the neurotoxin. These results suggest a mediatory role of kinin peptides in the development of neurodegeneration and may offer new possibilities for its regulation by using specific antagonists of kinin receptors. Anna Niewiarowska-Sendo, Andrzej Kozik, and Ibeth Guevara-Lora Copyright © 2016 Anna Niewiarowska-Sendo et al. All rights reserved. Elevated Expression of Programmed Death-1 and Programmed Death Ligand-1 Negatively Regulates Immune Response against Cervical Cancer Cells Sun, 18 Sep 2016 13:25:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/6891482/ The present study is to measure the expression of programmed death-1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), as well as its clinical significance in cervical cancer patients. Our results showed that different T cell subsets in patients with cervical cancer had high expression of PD-1, and DCs had high expression of PD-L1. High expression of PD-1 on Treg cells in cervical cancer patients facilitated the production of TGF-β and IL-10 but inhibited the production of IFN-γ. Cervical cancer elevated the expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 in mRNA level. PD-1 expression in peripheral blood of cervical cancer patients was related with tumor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, and invasiveness. PD-1/PD-L1 pathway inhibited lymphocyte proliferation but enhanced the secretion of IL-10 and TGF-β in vitro. In summary, our findings demonstrate that elevated levels of PD-1/PD-L1, TGF-β, and IL-10 in peripheral blood of cervical cancer patients may negatively regulate immune response against cervical cancer cells and contribute to the progression of cervical cancer. Therefore, PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may become an immunotherapy target in the future. Zhifang Chen, Nannan Pang, Rong Du, Yuejie Zhu, Lingling Fan, Donghui Cai, Yan Ding, and Jianbing Ding Copyright © 2016 Zhifang Chen et al. All rights reserved. Multiple Sclerosis and Obesity: Possible Roles of Adipokines Sun, 18 Sep 2016 11:44:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/4036232/ Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder of the Central Nervous System that has been associated with several environmental factors, such as diet and obesity. The possible link between MS and obesity has become more interesting in recent years since the discovery of the remarkable properties of adipose tissue. Once MS is initiated, obesity can contribute to increased disease severity by negatively influencing disease progress and treatment response, but, also, obesity in early life is highly relevant as a susceptibility factor and causally related risk for late MS development. The aim of this review was to discuss recent evidence about the link between obesity, as a chronic inflammatory state, and the pathogenesis of MS as a chronic autoimmune and inflammatory disease. First, we describe the main cells involved in MS pathogenesis, both from neural tissue and from the immune system, and including a new participant, the adipocyte, focusing on their roles in MS. Second, we concentrate on the role of several adipokines that are able to participate in the mediation of the immune response in MS and on the possible cross talk between the latter. Finally, we explore recent therapy that involves the transplantation of adipocyte precursor cells for the treatment of MS. José de Jesús Guerrero-García, Lucrecia Carrera-Quintanar, Rocío Ivette López-Roa, Ana Laura Márquez-Aguirre, Argelia Esperanza Rojas-Mayorquín, and Daniel Ortuño-Sahagún Copyright © 2016 José de Jesús Guerrero-García et al. All rights reserved. Blockade of PLD2 Ameliorates Intestinal Mucosal Inflammation of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Sun, 18 Sep 2016 10:56:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/2543070/ Background. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronically remittent and progressive inflammatory disorders. Phospholipase D2 (PLD2) is reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases. However, the exact role of PLD2 in IBD is obscure. Methods. PLD2 expression was determined in peripheral blood cells and inflamed mucosa from patients with IBD by qRT-PCR. Colonic biopsies were also obtained from CD patients before and after infliximab (IFX) treatment to examine PLD2 expression. PLD2 selective inhibitor (CAY10594) was administrated daily by oral gavage in DSS-induced colitis mice. Bone marrow neutrophils from colitis mice were harvested to examine the migration using Transwell plate. Results. PLD2 was found to be significantly increased in peripheral blood cells and inflamed mucosa in patients with active IBD. Treatment with IFX could significantly decrease PLD2 expression in intestinal mucosa in patients with CD. Moreover, blockade of PLD2 with CAY10594 could markedly ameliorate DSS-induced colitis in mice and promote neutrophil migration. Conclusions. PLD2 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of IBD. Blockade of PLD2 may serve as a new therapeutic approach for treatment of IBD. Guangxi Zhou, Lin Yu, Wenjing Yang, Wei Wu, Leilei Fang, and Zhanju Liu Copyright © 2016 Guangxi Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Regulation of IL-33 by Oncostatin M in Mouse Lung Epithelial Cells Thu, 15 Sep 2016 10:55:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/9858374/ IL-33 modulates both innate and adaptive immune responses at tissue sites including lung and may play critical roles in inflammatory lung disease. Although IL-33 expression can be altered upon NF-Kappa B activation, here we examine regulation by Oncostatin M, a gp130 cytokine family member, in mouse lung tissue. Responses were assessed in BALB/c mouse lung at day 7 of transient overexpression using endotracheally administered adenovirus encoding OSM (AdOSM) or empty vector (AdDel70). Whole lung extracts showed induction of IL-33 mRNA (>20-fold) and protein (10-fold increase in immunoblots) by AdOSM relative to AdDel70. Immunohistochemistry for IL-33 indicated a marked induction of nuclear staining in alveolar epithelial cells in vivo. Oncostatin M stimulated IL-33 mRNA and IL-33 full length protein in C10 mouse type 2 alveolar epithelial cells in culture in time-dependent and dose-dependent fashion, whereas IL-6, LIF, IL-31, IL-4, or IL-13 did not, and TGFβ repressed IL-33. IL-33 induction was associated with activation of STAT3, and pharmacological inhibition of STAT3 ameliorated IL-33 levels. These results indicate Oncostatin M as a potent inducer of IL-33 in mouse lung epithelial cells and suggest that an OSM/IL-33 axis may participate in innate immunity and inflammatory conditions in lung. Carl D. Richards, Laura Izakelian, Anisha Dubey, Grace Zhang, Steven Wong, Karen Kwofie, Aatif Qureshi, and Fernando Botelho Copyright © 2016 Carl D. Richards et al. All rights reserved. SOCS1 Mimetic Peptide Suppresses Chronic Intraocular Inflammatory Disease (Uveitis) Thu, 15 Sep 2016 07:25:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/2939370/ Uveitis is a potentially sight-threatening disease characterized by repeated cycles of remission and recurrent inflammation. The JAK/STAT pathway regulates the differentiation of pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells that mediate uveitis. A SOCS1 mimetic peptide (SOCS1-KIR) that inhibits JAK2/STAT1 pathways has recently been shown to suppress experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). However, it is not clear whether SOCS1-KIR ameliorated uveitis by targeting JAK/STAT pathways of pathogenic lymphocytes or via inhibition of macrophages and antigen-presenting cells that also enter the retina during EAU. To further investigate mechanisms that mediate SOCS1-KIR effects and evaluate the efficacy of SOCS1-KIR as an investigational drug for chronic uveitis, we induced EAU in rats by adoptive transfer of uveitogenic T-cells and monitored disease progression and severity by slit-lamp microscopy, histology, and optical coherence tomography. Topical administration of SOCS1-KIR ameliorated acute and chronic posterior uveitis by inhibiting Th17 cells and the recruitment of inflammatory cells into retina while promoting expansion of IL-10-producing Tregs. We further show that SOCS1-KIR conferred protection of resident retinal cells that play critical role in vision from cytotoxic effects of inflammatory cytokines by downregulating proapoptotic genes. Thus, SOCS1-KIR suppresses uveitis and confers neuroprotective effects and might be exploited as a noninvasive treatment for chronic uveitis. Chang He, Cheng-Rong Yu, Mary J. Mattapallil, Lin Sun, Joseph Larkin III, and Charles E. Egwuagu Copyright © 2016 Chang He et al. All rights reserved. P-Selectin Targeted Dexamethasone-Loaded Lipid Nanoemulsions: A Novel Therapy to Reduce Vascular Inflammation Wed, 14 Sep 2016 14:22:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/1625149/ Inflammation is a common process associated with numerous vascular pathologies. We hypothesized that targeting the inflamed endothelium by coupling a peptide with high affinity for P-selectin to the surface of dexamethasone-loaded lipid nanoemulsions will highly increase their specific binding to activated endothelial cells (EC) and reduce the cell activation. We developed and characterized dexamethasone-loaded lipid nanoemulsions directed towards P-selectin (PLN-Dex) and monitored their anti-inflammatory effects in vitro using cultured EC (EA.hy926 cells) and in vivo using a mouse model of acute inflammation [lipopolysaccharides (LPS) intravenously administered in C57BL/6 mice]. We found that PLN-Dex bound specifically to the surface of activated EC are efficiently internalized by EC and reduced the expression of proinflammatory genes, thus preventing the monocyte adhesion and transmigration to/through activated EC. Given intravenously in mice with acute inflammation, PLN-Dex accumulated at a significant high level in the lungs (compared to nontargeted nanoemulsions) and significantly reduced mRNA expression level of key proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and MCP-1. In conclusion, the newly developed nanoformulation, PLN-Dex, is functional in vitro and in vivo, reducing selectively the endothelium activation and the consequent monocyte infiltration and diminishing significantly the lungs’ inflammation, in a mouse model of acute inflammation. Viorel Simion, Cristina Ana Constantinescu, Daniela Stan, Mariana Deleanu, Monica Madalina Tucureanu, Elena Butoi, Ileana Manduteanu, Maya Simionescu, and Manuela Calin Copyright © 2016 Viorel Simion et al. All rights reserved. Circulating Calreticulin Is Increased in Myelofibrosis: Correlation with Interleukin-6 Plasma Levels, Bone Marrow Fibrosis, and Splenomegaly Thu, 08 Sep 2016 18:02:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/5860657/ Myelofibrosis (MF) is a clonal neoplasia of the hemopoietic stem/progenitor cells associated with genetic mutations in the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene (MPL), and calreticulin (CALR) genes. MF is also characterized by a state of chronic inflammation. Calreticulin (CRT), as a multifunctional protein, is involved in a spectrum of cellular processes including inflammation, autoimmunity, and cancer initiation/progression. Based on this background, we hypothesised that in MF circulating CRT might reflect the inflammatory process. In the present study we show that circulating CRT is increased in MF patients compared to healthy controls. Also, in MF, CRT levels highly correlate with bone marrow fibrosis, splenomegaly, and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) plasma levels. In turn, higher IL-6 levels also correlated with disease severity in terms of increased spleen size, bone marrow fibrosis, number of circulating CD34+ cells, and lower hemoglobin values. These results demonstrate that the circulating CRT takes part in the inflammatory network of MF and correlates with aggressiveness of the disease. Daria Sollazzo, Dorian Forte, Nicola Polverelli, Margherita Perricone, Marco Romano, Simona Luatti, Nicola Vianelli, Michele Cavo, Francesca Palandri, and Lucia Catani Copyright © 2016 Daria Sollazzo et al. All rights reserved. Natural Compounds as Regulators of NLRP3 Inflammasome-Mediated IL-1β Production Thu, 08 Sep 2016 13:42:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/5460302/ IL-1β is one of the main proinflammatory cytokines that regulates a broad range of immune responses and also participates in several physiological processes. The canonical production of IL-1β requires multiprotein complexes called inflammasomes. One of the most intensively studied inflammasome complexes is the NLRP3 inflammasome. Its activation requires two signals: one signal “primes” the cells and induces the expression of NLRP3 and pro-IL-1β, while the other signal leads to the assembly and activation of the complex. Several stimuli were reported to function as the second signal including reactive oxygen species, lysosomal rupture, or cytosolic ion perturbation. Despite very intensive studies, the precise function and regulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome are still not clear. However, many chronic inflammatory diseases are related to the overproduction of IL-1β that is mediated via the NLRP3 inflammasome. In this review, we aimed to provide an overview of studies that demonstrated the effect of plant-derived natural compounds on NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β production. Although many of these studies lack the mechanistic explanation of their action, these compounds may be considered as complementary supplements in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases, consumed as preventive agents, and may also be considered as molecular tools to study NLRP3 function. József Tőzsér and Szilvia Benkő Copyright © 2016 József Tőzsér and Szilvia Benkő. All rights reserved. Insights from lncRNAs Profiling of MIN6 Beta Cells Undergoing Inflammation Tue, 06 Sep 2016 14:10:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/9275106/ Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease characterized by chronic and progressive apoptotic destruction of pancreatic beta cells. During the initial phases of T1DM, cytokines and other inflammatory mediators released by immune cells progressively infiltrate islet cells, induce alterations in gene expression, provoke functional impairment, and ultimately lead to apoptosis. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a new important class of pervasive genes that have a variety of biological functions and play key roles in many diseases. However, whether they have a function in cytokine-induced beta cell apoptosis is still uncertain. In this study, lncRNA microarray technology was used to identify the differently expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs in MIN6 cells exposed to proinflammatory cytokines. Four hundred forty-four upregulated and 279 downregulated lncRNAs were detected with a set filter fold-change ≧2.0. To elucidate the potential functions of these lncRNAs, Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway analyses were used to evaluate the potential functions of differentially expressed lncRNAs. Additionally, a lncRNA-mRNA coexpression network was constructed to predict the interactions between the most strikingly regulated lncRNAs and mRNAs. This study may be utilized as a background or reference resource for future functional studies on lncRNAs related to the diagnosis and development of new therapies for T1DM. Chuntao Sun, Lihua Xue, Ziyang Zhu, Fan Zhang, Ruixue Yang, Xuewen Yuan, Zhanjun Jia, and Qianqi Liu Copyright © 2016 Chuntao Sun et al. All rights reserved. Protective Effect of Galectin-1 during Histoplasma capsulatum Infection Is Associated with Prostaglandin E2 and Nitric Oxide Modulation Tue, 06 Sep 2016 08:37:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/5813794/ Histoplasma capsulatum is a dimorphic fungus that develops a yeast-like morphology in host’s tissue, responsible for the pulmonary disease histoplasmosis. The recent increase in the incidence of histoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients highlights the need of understanding immunological controls of fungal infections. Here, we describe our discovery of the role of endogenous galectin-1 (Gal-1) in the immune pathophysiology of experimental histoplasmosis. All infected wild-type (WT) mice survived while only 1/3 of Lgals1−/− mice genetically deficient in Gal-1 survived 30 days after infection. Although infected Lgals1−/− mice had increased proinflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO), and elevations in neutrophil pulmonary infiltration, they presented higher fungal load in lungs and spleen. Infected lung and infected macrophages from Lgals1−/− mice exhibited elevated levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, a prostanoid regulator of macrophage activation) and prostaglandin E synthase 2 (Ptgs2) mRNA. Gal-1 did not bind to cell surface of yeast phase of H. capsulatum, in vitro, suggesting that Gal-1 contributed to phagocytes response to infection rather than directly killing the yeast. The data provides the first demonstration of endogenous Gal-1 in the protective immune response against H. capsulatum associated with NO and PGE2 as an important lipid mediator in the pathogenesis of histoplasmosis. Lílian Cataldi Rodrigues, Adriana Secatto, Carlos A. Sorgi, Naiara N. Dejani, Alexandra I. Medeiros, Morgana Kelly Borges Prado, Simone Gusmão Ramos, Richard D. Cummings, Sean R. Stowell, Lúcia Helena Faccioli, and Marcelo Dias-Baruffi Copyright © 2016 Lílian Cataldi Rodrigues et al. All rights reserved. Prospective Clinical Trial for Septic Arthritis: Cartilage Degradation and Inflammation Are Associated with Upregulation of Cartilage Metabolites Mon, 05 Sep 2016 16:22:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/5491971/ Background. Intra-articular infections can rapidly lead to osteoarthritic degradation. The aim of this clinical biomarker analysis was to investigate the influence of inflammation on cartilage destruction and metabolism. Methods. Patients with acute joint infections were enrolled in a prospective clinical trial and the cytokine composition of effusions () was analyzed. Characteristics of epidemiology and disease severity were correlated with levels of cytokines with known roles in cartilage turnover and degradation. Results. Higher synovial IL-1β concentrations were associated with clinical parameters indicating a higher disease severity () excluding the incidence of sepsis. Additionally, intra-articular IL-1β levels correlated with inflammatory serum parameters as leucocyte counts (LC) and C-reactive protein concentrations () but not with age or comorbidity. Both higher LC and synovial IL-1β levels were associated with increased intra-articular collagen type II cleavage products (C2C) indicating cartilage degradation. Joints with preinfectious lesions had higher C2C levels. Intra-articular inflammation led to increased concentrations of typical cartilage metabolites as bFGF, BMP-2, and BMP-7. Infections with Staphylococcus species induced higher IL-1β expression but less cartilage destruction than other bacteria. Conclusion. Articular infections have bacteria-specific implications on cartilage metabolism. Collagen type II cleavage products reliably mark destruction, which is associated with upregulation of typical cartilage turnover cytokines. This trial is registered with DRKS00003536, MISSinG. Hagen Schmal, Anke Bernstein, Matthias J. Feucht, Benjamin Erdle, Jan M. Pestka, That Minh Pham, and Eva Johanna Kubosch Copyright © 2016 Hagen Schmal et al. All rights reserved. Anti-Inflammation of Natural Components from Medicinal Plants at Low Concentrations in Brain via Inhibiting Neutrophil Infiltration after Stroke Mon, 05 Sep 2016 14:38:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/9537901/ Inflammation after stroke consists of activation of microglia/astrocytes in situ and infiltration of blood-borne leukocytes, resulting in brain damage and neurological deficits. Mounting data demonstrated that most natural components from medicinal plants had anti-inflammatory effects after ischemic stroke through inhibiting activation of resident microglia/astrocytes within ischemic area. However, it is speculated that this classical activity cannot account for the anti-inflammatory function of these natural components in the cerebral parenchyma, where they are detected at very low concentrations due to their poor membrane permeability and slight leakage of BBB. Could these drugs exert anti-inflammatory effects peripherally without being delivered across the BBB? Factually, ameliorating blood-borne neutrophil recruitment in peripheral circulatory system has been proved to reduce ischemic damage and improve outcomes. Thus, it is concluded that if drugs could achieve effective concentrations in the cerebral parenchyma, they can function via crippling resident microglia/astrocytes activation and inhibiting neutrophil infiltration, whereas the latter will be dominating when these drugs localize in the brain at a low concentration. In this review, the availability of some natural components crossing the BBB in stroke will be discussed, and how these drugs lead to improvements in stroke through inhibition of neutrophil rolling, adhesion, and transmigration will be illustrated. Jiannan Chen, Xiangjian Zhang, Cong Zhang, Wenhui Wang, Rong Chen, Honglei Jiao, Linlin Li, Lan Zhang, and Lili Cui Copyright © 2016 Jiannan Chen et al. All rights reserved. SP600125 Attenuates Nicotine-Related Aortic Aneurysm Formation by Inhibiting Matrix Metalloproteinase Production and CC Chemokine-Mediated Macrophage Migration Thu, 01 Sep 2016 14:02:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/9142425/ Nicotine, a major chemical component of cigarettes, plays a pivotal role in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) has been demonstrated to participate in elastase-induced AAA. This study aimed to elucidate whether the JNK inhibitor SP600125 can attenuate nicotine plus angiotensin II- (AngII-) induced AAA formation and to assess the underlying molecular mechanisms. SP600125 significantly attenuated nicotine plus AngII-induced AAA formation. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 2, MMP-9, monocyte chemoattractant protein- (MCP-) 1, and regulated-on-activation, normal T-cells expressed and secreted (RANTES) was significantly upregulated in aortic aneurysm lesions but inhibited by SP600125. In vitro, nicotine induced the expression of MCP-1 and RANTES in both RAW264.7 (mouse macrophage) and MOVAS (mouse vascular smooth muscle) cells in a dose-dependent manner; expression was upregulated by 0.5 ng/mL nicotine but strongly downregulated by 500 ng/mL nicotine. SP600125 attenuated the upregulation of MCP-1 and RANTES expression and subsequent macrophage migration. In conclusion, SP600125 attenuates nicotine plus AngII-induced AAA formation likely by inhibiting MMP-2, MMP-9, MCP-1, and RANTES. The expression of chemokines in MOVAS cells induced by nicotine has an effect on RAW264.7 migration, which is likely to contribute to the development of nicotine-related AAA. Zhen-Zhen Guo, Qun-An Cao, Zong-Zhuang Li, Li-Ping Liu, Zhi Zhang, Ya-Juan Zhu, Guang Chu, and Qiu-Yan Dai Copyright © 2016 Zhen-Zhen Guo et al. All rights reserved. Doxycycline and Benznidazole Reduce the Profile of Th1, Th2, and Th17 Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors in Cardiac Tissue from Chronic Trypanosoma cruzi-Infected Dogs Thu, 01 Sep 2016 08:21:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/3694714/ Chemokines (CKs) and chemokine receptors (CKR) promote leukocyte recruitment into cardiac tissue infected by the Trypanosoma cruzi. This study investigated the long-term treatment with subantimicrobial doses of doxycycline (Dox) in association, or not, with benznidazole (Bz) on the expression of CK and CKR in cardiac tissue. Thirty mongrel dogs were infected, or not, with the Berenice-78 strain of T. cruzi and grouped according their treatments: (i) two months after infection, Dox (50 mg/kg) 2x/day for 12 months; (ii) nine months after infection, Bz (3,5 mg/kg) 2x/day for 60 days; (iii) Dox + Bz; and (iv) vehicle. After 14 months of infection, hearts were excised and processed for qPCR analysis of Th1 (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CXCL9, and CXCL11), Th2 (CCL1, CCL17, CCL24, and CCL26), Th17 (CCL20) CKs, Th1 (CCR5, CCR6, and CXCR3), and Th2/Th17 (CCR3, CCR4, and CCR8) CKR, as well as IL-17. T. cruzi infection increases CCL1, CCL2, CCL4, CCL5, CCL17, CXCL10, and CCR5 expression in the heart. Dox, Bz, or Dox + Bz treatments cause a reversal of CK and CKR and reduce the expression of CCL20, IL-17, CCR6, and CXCR3. Our data reveal an immune modulatory effect of Dox with Bz, during the chronic phase of infection suggesting a promising therapy for cardiac protection. Guilherme de Paula Costa, Laís Roquete Lopes, Maria Cláudia da Silva, Aline Luciano Horta, Washington Martins Pontes, Cristiane M. Milanezi, Paulo Marcos da Mata Guedes, Wanderson Geraldo de Lima, Richard Schulz, João Santana da Silva, and Andre Talvani Copyright © 2016 Guilherme de Paula Costa et al. All rights reserved. Myeloperoxidase-Oxidized LDLs Enhance an Anti-Inflammatory M2 and Antioxidant Phenotype in Murine Macrophages Tue, 30 Aug 2016 16:43:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/8249476/ Macrophages and oxidized LDLs play a key role in atherogenesis but their heterogeneity has been neglected up to now. Macrophages are prone to polarization and subsets of polarized macrophages have been described in atheromas. LDLs can be oxidized not only chemically by copper (Ox-LDLs) but also enzymatically by myeloperoxidase (MpOx-LDLs) resulting in oxidized LDLs poor in lipid peroxides. The effects of physiologically relevant myeloperoxidase-oxidized LDLs on macrophage polarization or on polarized macrophages remain largely unknown. In this study, the effects of LDLs on macrophage polarization were investigated by monitoring the expression of M1 and M2 genes following stimulation with native LDLs, Ox-LDLs, or MpOx-LDLs in RAW 264.7 cells. Except for MRC1, which is induced only by Ox-LDLs, MpOx-LDLs induced an overexpression of most of the selected marker genes at the mRNA level. MpOx-LDLs also modulate marker gene expression in polarized macrophages favoring notably anti-inflammatory Arg1 expression in M2 cells and also in the other phenotypes. Noteworthy, MpOx-LDLs were the most efficient to accumulate lipids intracellularly in (un)polarized macrophages whatever the phenotype. These data were largely confirmed in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. Our data suggest that MpOx-LDLs were the most efficient to accumulate within cells and to enhance an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant phenotype in M2 cells and also in the other macrophage phenotypes. Valérie Pireaux, Aude Sauvage, Benoît Bihin, Martine Van Steenbrugge, Alexandre Rousseau, Pierre Van Antwerpen, Karim Zouaoui Boudjeltia, and Martine Raes Copyright © 2016 Valérie Pireaux et al. All rights reserved.