Mediators of Inflammation The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Doxycycline Inhibits IL-17-Stimulated MMP-9 Expression by Downregulating ERK1/2 Activation: Implications in Myogenic Differentiation Wed, 30 Nov 2016 13:29:51 +0000 Interleukin 17 (IL-17) is a cytokine with pleiotropic effects associated with several inflammatory diseases. Although elevated levels of IL-17 have been described in inflammatory myopathies, its role in muscle remodeling and regeneration is still unknown. Excessive extracellular matrix degradation in skeletal muscle is an important pathological consequence of many diseases involving muscle wasting. In this study, the role of IL-17 on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 9 in myoblast cells was investigated. The expression of MMP-9 after IL-17 treatment was analyzed in mouse myoblasts C2C12 cell line. The increase in MMP-9 production by IL-17 was concomitant with its capacity to inhibit myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells. Doxycycline (Doxy) treatment protected the myogenic capacity of myoblasts from IL-17 inhibition and, moreover, increased myotubes hypertrophy. Doxy blocked the capacity of IL-17 to stimulate MMP-9 production by regulating IL-17-induced ERK1/2 MAPK activation. Our results imply that MMP-9 mediates IL-17’s capacity to inhibit myoblast differentiation during inflammatory diseases and indicate that Doxy can modulate myoblast response to inflammatory induction by IL-17. Hristina Obradović, Jelena Krstić, Tamara Kukolj, Drenka Trivanović, Ivana Okić Đorđević, Slavko Mojsilović, Aleksandra Jauković, Gordana Jovčić, Diana Bugarski, and Juan Francisco Santibañez Copyright © 2016 Hristina Obradović et al. All rights reserved. The Initial Months of Antiretroviral Therapy and Its Influence on AGEs, HMGB1, and sRAGE Levels in Asymptomatic HIV-Infected Individuals Wed, 30 Nov 2016 09:07:50 +0000 The development of the typical comorbidities of aging which currently affects people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) can be partially ascribed to the persistent immune activation and chronic inflammation characterizing these individuals. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect exerted by combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) administration on plasma levels of HMGB1 (high mobility group box protein-1), AGEs (advanced glycation end products), their soluble receptor sRAGE, cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), and some metabolic markers in asymptomatic PLWHA. Analyses were performed longitudinally in 30 PLWHA, before and about 6–12 months after cART initiation. We observed that lower levels of AGEs in post-cART group were accompanied by an increase of CRP and triglyceride levels already in the early months of therapy. Because of the current ever-earlier recommendations to start cART and its prolonged use, these and other markers should be investigated in order to monitor and postpone the appearance of non-AIDS comorbidities in PLWHA. Karen Ingrid Tasca, Juliana Trindade Caleffi, Camila Renata Correa, Mariana Gatto, Caio Cavassan de Camargo, Monica Bannwart Mendes, Marjorie de Assis Golim, Mara Biasin, and Lenice do Rosário de Souza Copyright © 2016 Karen Ingrid Tasca et al. All rights reserved. Increased IL17A, IFNG, and FOXP3 Transcripts in Moderate-Severe Psoriasis: A Major Influence Exerted by IL17A in Disease Severity Wed, 30 Nov 2016 07:49:51 +0000 Psoriasis is a chronic and recurrent dermatitis, mediated by keratinocytes and T cells. Several proinflammatory cytokines contribute to formation and maintenance of psoriatic plaque. The Th1/Th17 pathways and some of IL-1 family members were involved in psoriasis pathogenesis and could contribute to disease activity. Therefore, we sought to analyse skin transcript levels of IL17A, IL22, RORC, IL8, IFNG, IL33, IL36A, FOXP3, and IL10 and correlate with clinic of patients with plaque-type psoriasis. In order to conduct that, we collected punch biopsies from lesional skin and obtained tissue RNA. After reverse transcription, qRT-PCR quantified the relative mRNA expression. The main results revealed increased transcripts levels of IL17A, IFNG, and FOXP3 in moderate-severe patients. Despite this, only IL17A can increase the chance to worsen disease severity. We also observed many significant positive correlations between each transcript. In conclusion, IL17A is elevated in lesional skin from psoriasis patients and plays crucial role in disease severity. Priscilla Stela Santana de Oliveira, Michelly Cristiny Pereira, Simão Kalebe Silva de Paula, Emerson Vasconcelos Andrade Lima, Mariana Modesto de Andrade Lima, Rodrigo Gomes de Arruda, Wagner Luís Mendes de Oliveira, Ângela Luzia Branco Pinto Duarte, Ivan da Rocha Pitta, Moacyr Jesus Melo Barreto Rêgo, and Maira Galdino da Rocha Pitta Copyright © 2016 Priscilla Stela Santana de Oliveira et al. All rights reserved. Maresin 1 Mitigates Inflammatory Response and Protects Mice from Sepsis Wed, 30 Nov 2016 06:50:12 +0000 Sepsis, frequently caused by infection of bacteria, is considered as an uncontrollable systematic inflammation response syndrome (SIRS). Maresin 1 (Mar1) is a new proresolving mediator with potent anti-inflammatory effect in several animal models. However, its effect in sepsis is still not investigated. To address this question, we developed sepsis model in BALB/c mice by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) with or without Mar1 treatment. Our data showed that Mar1 markedly improved survival rate and decreased the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in CLP mice such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Furthermore, Mar1 reduced serum level of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and enhanced the bacteria clearance in mice sepsis model. Moreover, Mar1 attenuated lung injury and decreased level of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), creatinine (Cre), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in serum in mice after CLP surgery. Treatment with Mar1 inhibited activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-b) pathway. In conclusion, Mar1 exhibited protective effect in sepsis by reducing LPS, bacteria burden in serum, inhibiting inflammation response, and improving vital organ function. The possible mechanism is partly involved in inhibition of NF-b activation. Ruidong Li, Yaxin Wang, Zhijun Ma, Muyuan Ma, Di Wang, Gengchen Xie, Yuping Yin, Peng Zhang, and Kaixiong Tao Copyright © 2016 Ruidong Li et al. All rights reserved. Therapeutic Effects of Quercetin on Inflammation, Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes Mon, 28 Nov 2016 06:09:16 +0000 In previous studies, abdominal obesity has been related to total low-grade inflammation and in some cases has resulted in insulin resistance and other metabolism related disorders such as diabetes. Quercetin is a polyphenol, which is a derivative of plants, and has been shown in vitro as well as in a few animal models to have several potential anti-inflammatory as well as anticarcinogenic applications. The substance has also been shown to aid in the attenuation of lipid peroxidation, platelet aggregation, and capillary permeability. However, further research is called for to gain a better understanding of how quercetin is able to provide these beneficial effects. This manuscript reviewed quercetin’s anti-inflammatory properties in relation to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Shuang Chen, Hongmei Jiang, Xiaosong Wu, and Jun Fang Copyright © 2016 Shuang Chen et al. All rights reserved. N-Acetyl-L-cysteine Protects the Enterocyte against Oxidative Damage by Modulation of Mitochondrial Function Sun, 27 Nov 2016 13:14:37 +0000 The neonatal small intestine is susceptible to damage caused by oxidative stress. This study aimed to evaluate the protective role of antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in intestinal epithelial cells against oxidative damage induced by H2O2. IPEC-J2 cells were cultured in DMEM-H with NAC and H2O2. After 2-day incubation, IPEC-J2 cells were collected for analysis of DNA synthesis, antioxidation capacity, mitochondrial respiration, and cell apoptosis. The results showed that H2O2 significantly decreased () proliferation rate, mitochondrial respiration, and antioxidation capacity and increased cell apoptosis and the abundance of associated proteins, including cytochrome C, Bcl-XL, cleaved caspase-3, and total caspase-3. NAC supplementation remarkably increased () proliferation rate, antioxidation capacity, and mitochondrial bioenergetics but decreased cell apoptosis. These findings indicate that NAC might rescue the intestinal injury induced by H2O2. Hao Xiao, Miaomiao Wu, Fangyuan Shao, Guiping Guan, Bo Huang, Bie Tan, and Yulong Yin Copyright © 2016 Hao Xiao et al. All rights reserved. Frequency of TNFA, INFG, and IL10 Gene Polymorphisms and Their Association with Malaria Vivax and Genomic Ancestry Thu, 24 Nov 2016 14:07:01 +0000 Polymorphisms in cytokine genes can alter the production of these proteins and consequently affect the immune response. The trihybrid heterogeneity of the Brazilian population is characterized as a condition for the use of ancestry informative markers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of -1031T>C, -308G>A and -238G>A TNFA, +874 A>T IFNG and -819C>T, and -592C>A IL10 gene polymorphisms and their association with malaria vivax and genomic ancestry. Samples from 90 vivax malaria-infected individuals and 51 noninfected individuals from northern Brazil were evaluated. Genotyping was carried out by using ASO-PCR or PCR/RFLP. The genomic ancestry of the individuals was classified using 48 insertion/deletion polymorphism biallelic markers. There were no differences in the proportions of African, European, and Native American ancestry between men and women. No significant association was observed for the allele and genotype frequencies of the 6 SNPs between malaria-infected and noninfected individuals. However, there was a trend toward decreasing the frequency of individuals carrying the TNF-308A allele with the increasing proportion of European ancestry. No ethnic-specific SNPs were identified, and there was no allelic or genotype association with susceptibility or resistance to vivax malaria. Understanding the genomic mechanisms by which ancestry influences this association is critical and requires further study. Adriana Antônia da Cruz Furini, Gustavo Capatti Cassiano, Marcela Petrolini Capobianco, Sidney Emanuel Batista dos Santos, and Ricardo Luiz Dantas Machado Copyright © 2016 Adriana Antônia da Cruz Furini et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Advancements in the Targeted Therapies against Liver Fibrosis Thu, 24 Nov 2016 14:03:23 +0000 Hepatic fibrosis, characterized by excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins leading to liver dysfunction, is a growing cause of mortality worldwide. Hepatocellular damage owing to liver injury leads to the release of profibrotic factors from infiltrating inflammatory cells that results in the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Upon activation, HSCs undergo characteristic morphological and functional changes and are transformed into proliferative and contractile ECM-producing myofibroblasts. Over recent years, a number of therapeutic strategies have been developed to inhibit hepatocyte apoptosis, inflammatory responses, and HSCs proliferation and activation. Preclinical studies have yielded numerous targets for the development of antifibrotic therapies, some of which have entered clinical trials and showed improved therapeutic efficacy and desirable safety profiles. Furthermore, advancements have been made in the development of noninvasive markers and techniques for the accurate disease assessment and therapy responses. Here, we focus on the clinical developments attained in the field of targeted antifibrotics for the treatment of liver fibrosis, for example, small molecule drugs, antibodies, and targeted drug conjugate. We further briefly highlight different noninvasive diagnostic technologies and will provide an overview about different therapeutic targets, clinical trials, endpoints, and translational efforts that have been made to halt or reverse the progression of liver fibrosis. Ruchi Bansal, Beata Nagórniewicz, and Jai Prakash Copyright © 2016 Ruchi Bansal et al. All rights reserved. FFAR4 (GPR120) Signaling Is Not Required for Anti-Inflammatory and Insulin-Sensitizing Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Thu, 24 Nov 2016 10:17:09 +0000 Free fatty acid receptor-4 (FFAR4), also known as GPR120, has been reported to mediate the beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) by inducing an anti-inflammatory immune response. Thus, activation of FFAR4 has been reported to ameliorate chronic low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance accompanying obesity. However, conflicting reports on the role of FFAR4 in mediating the effects of ω3-PUFAs are emerging, suggesting that FFAR4 may not be the sole effector. Hence analyses of the importance of this receptor in relation to other signaling pathways and prominent effects of ω3-PUFAs remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we used Ffar4 knockouts (KO) and heterozygous (HET) mice fed either low fat, low sucrose reference diet; high fat, high sucrose ω3-PUFA; or high fat, high sucrose ω6-PUFA diet for 36 weeks. We demonstrate that both KO and HET mice fed ω3-PUFAs were protected against obesity, hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation, and whole-body insulin resistance. Moreover, ω3-PUFA fed mice had increased circulating protein levels of the anti-inflammatory adipokine, adiponectin, decreased fasting insulin levels, and decreased mRNA expression of several proinflammatory molecules within visceral adipose tissue. In conclusion, we find that FFAR4 signaling is not required for the reported anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects mediated by ω3-PUFAs. Simone Isling Pærregaard, Marianne Agerholm, Annette Karen Serup, Tao Ma, Bente Kiens, Lise Madsen, Karsten Kristiansen, and Benjamin Anderschou Holbech Jensen Copyright © 2016 Simone Isling Pærregaard et al. All rights reserved. MicroRNA Regulation of Endothelial Junction Proteins and Clinical Consequence Thu, 24 Nov 2016 07:28:31 +0000 Cellular junctions play a critical role in structural connection and signal communication between cells in various tissues. Although there are structural and functional varieties, cellular junctions include tight junctions, adherens junctions, focal adhesion junctions, and tissue specific junctions such as PECAM-1 junctions in endothelial cells (EC), desmosomes in epithelial cells, and hemidesmosomes in EC. Cellular junction dysfunction and deterioration are indicative of clinical diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are ~20 nucleotide, noncoding RNAs that play an important role in posttranscriptional regulation for almost all genes. Unsurprisingly, miRNAs regulate junction protein gene expression and control junction structure integrity. In contrast, abnormal miRNA regulation of junction protein gene expression results in abnormal junction structure, causing related diseases. The major components of tight junctions include zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1), claudin-1, claudin-5, and occludin. The miRNA regulation of ZO-1 has been intensively investigated. ZO-1 and other tight junction proteins such as claudin-5 and occludin were positively regulated by miR-126, miR-107, and miR21 in different models. In contrast, ZO-1, claudin-5, and occludin were negatively regulated by miR-181a, miR-98, and miR150. Abnormal tight junction miRNA regulation accompanies cerebral middle artery ischemia, brain trauma, glioma metastasis, and so forth. The major components of adherens junctions include VE-cadherin, β-catenin, plakoglobin, P120, and vinculin. VE-cadherin and β-catenin were regulated by miR-9, miR-99b, miR-181a, and so forth. These regulations directly affect VE-cadherin-β-catenin complex stability and further affect embryo and tumor angiogenesis, vascular development, and so forth. miR-155 and miR-126 have been shown to regulate PECAM-1 and affect neutrophil rolling and EC junction integrity. In focal adhesion junctions, the major components are integrin β4, paxillin, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Integrin β4 has been regulated by miR-184, miR-205, and miR-9. Paxillin has been regulated by miR-137, miR-145, and miR-218 in different models. FAK has been regulated by miR-7, miR-138, and miR-135. Deregulation of miRNAs is caused by viral infections, tumorigenesis, and so forth. By regulation of posttranscription, miRNAs manipulate junction protein expression in all cellular processes and further determine cellular fate and development. Elucidation of these regulatory mechanisms will become a new alternative therapy for many diseases, such as cancers and inflammatory diseases. Yugang Zhuang, Hu Peng, Victoria Mastej, and Weiguo Chen Copyright © 2016 Yugang Zhuang et al. All rights reserved. Epobis is a Nonerythropoietic and Neuroprotective Agonist of the Erythropoietin Receptor with Anti-Inflammatory and Memory Enhancing Effects Mon, 21 Nov 2016 08:21:42 +0000 The cytokine erythropoietin (EPO) stimulates proliferation and differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells. Moreover, EPO has neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative effects, but the use of EPO as a neuroprotective agent is hampered by its erythropoietic activity. We have recently designed the synthetic, dendrimeric peptide, Epobis, derived from the sequence of human EPO. This peptide binds the EPO receptor and promotes neuritogenesis and neuronal cell survival. Here we demonstrate that Epobis in vitro promotes neuritogenesis in primary motoneurons and has anti-inflammatory effects as demonstrated by its ability to decrease TNF release from activated AMJ2-C8 macrophages and rat primary microglia. When administered systemically Epobis is detectable in both plasma and cerebrospinal fluid, demonstrating that the peptide crosses the blood-brain barrier. Importantly, Epobis is not erythropoietic, but systemic administration of Epobis in rats delays the clinical signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis, and the peptide has long-term, but not short-term, effects on working memory, detected as an improved social memory 3 days after administration. These data reveal Epobis to be a nonerythropoietic and neuroprotective EPO receptor agonist with anti-inflammatory and memory enhancing properties. Oksana Dmytriyeva, Stanislava Pankratova, Irina Korshunova, and Peter S. Walmod Copyright © 2016 Oksana Dmytriyeva et al. All rights reserved. Fermented Herbal Formulas KIOM-MA128 Ameliorate IL-6-Induced Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction in Colon Cancer Cell Line Thu, 17 Nov 2016 09:13:46 +0000 Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). IBD increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), depending on the extent and duration of intestinal inflammation. Increased IL-6 expression has been reported in IBD patients, which may be associated with intestinal barrier function through discontinuous tight junction (TJ). KIOM-MA is a specific agent for allergic diseases and cancer, and it is composed of several plants; these herbs have been used in traditional oriental medicine. We fermented KIOM-MA, the product of KIOM-MA128, using probiotics to improve the therapeutic efficacy via the absorption and bioavailability of the active ingredients. In this study, we demonstrated that KIOM-MA/MA128 exhibited anticolitis effects via the modulation of TJ protein. Interleukin-6 resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the TER and an increase in the FITC-dextran permeability; however, pretreatment with 400 µg/ml KIOM-MA/MA128 resulted in a significant increase in the TER and a decrease in the FITC-dextran permeability via IL-6 induction. Furthermore, protein and mRNA TJ levels remained stable after pretreatment with 400 µg/ml KIOM-MA/MA128. Moreover, KIOM-MA/MA128 suppressed the expression of PLCγ1 and PKC. Taken together, these findings suggest novel information and clue of the anticolitis effects of KIOM-MA128 via regulation of tight junction. Kwang Il Park, Dong Gun Kim, Bo Hyoung Lee, and Jin Yeul Ma Copyright © 2016 Kwang Il Park et al. All rights reserved. Elevated Admission Base Deficit Is Associated with a Complex Dynamic Network of Systemic Inflammation Which Drives Clinical Trajectories in Blunt Trauma Patients Tue, 15 Nov 2016 12:06:32 +0000 We hypothesized that elevated base deficit (BD) ≥ 4 mEq/L upon admission could be associated with an altered inflammatory response, which in turn may impact differential clinical trajectories. Using clinical and biobank data from 472 blunt trauma survivors, 154 patients were identified after excluding patients who received prehospital IV fluids or had alcohol intoxication. From this subcohort, 84 patients had a BD ≥ 4 mEq/L and 70 patients with BD < 4 mEq/L. Three samples within the first 24 h were obtained from all patients and then daily up to day 7 after injury. Twenty-two cytokines and chemokines were assayed using Luminex™ and were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and dynamic network analysis (DyNA). Multiple mediators of the innate and lymphoid immune responses in the BD ≥ 4 group were elevated differentially upon admission and up to 16 h after injury. DyNA revealed a higher, sustained degree of interconnectivity of the inflammatory response in the BD ≥ 4 patients during the initial 16 h after injury. These results suggest that elevated admission BD is associated with differential immune/inflammatory pathways, which subsequently could predispose patients to follow a complicated clinical course. Othman Abdul-Malak, Yoram Vodovotz, Akram Zaaqoq, Jesse Guardado, Khalid Almahmoud, Jinling Yin, Brian Zuckerbraun, Andrew B. Peitzman, Jason Sperry, Timothy R. Billiar, and Rami A. Namas Copyright © 2016 Othman Abdul-Malak et al. All rights reserved. CD4+ T Cell Fate in Glomerulonephritis: A Tale of Th1, Th17, and Novel Treg Subtypes Tue, 15 Nov 2016 11:28:30 +0000 Multiple studies have identified CD4+ T cells as central players of glomerulonephritis (GN). Cells of the Th1 and Th17 responses cause renal tissue damage, while Tregs mediate protection. Recently, a high degree of plasticity among these T cell lineages was proposed. During inflammation, Th17 cells were shown to have the potential of transdifferentiation into Th1, Th2, or alternatively anti-inflammatory Tr1 cells. Currently available data from studies in GN, however, do not indicate relevant Th17 to Th1 or Th2 conversion, leaving the Th17 cell fate enigmatic. Tregs, on the other hand, were speculated to transdifferentiate into Th17 cells. Again, data from GN do not support this concept. Rather, it seems that previously unrecognized subspecialized effector Treg lineages exist. These include Th1 specific Treg1 as well as Th17 directed Treg17 cells. Furthermore, a bifunctional Treg subpopulation was recently identified in GN, which secrets IL-17 and coexpresses Foxp3 together with the Th17 characteristic transcription factor RORγt. Similarities between these different and highly specialized effector Treg subpopulations with the corresponding T helper effector cell lineages might have resulted in previous misinterpretation as Treg transdifferentiation. In summary, Th17 cells have a relatively stable phenotype during GN, while, in the case of Tregs, currently available data suggest lineage heterogeneity rather than plasticity. Christan F. Krebs and Oliver M. Steinmetz Copyright © 2016 Christan F. Krebs and Oliver M. Steinmetz. All rights reserved. Association of Heme Oxygenase 1 with Lung Protection in Malaria-Associated ALI/ARDS Tue, 15 Nov 2016 10:03:38 +0000 Malaria is a serious disease, caused by the parasite of the genus Plasmodium, which was responsible for 440,000 deaths in 2015. Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) is one of the main clinical complications in severe malaria. The murine model DBA/2 reproduces the clinical signs of ALI/ARDS in humans, when infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. High levels of HO-1 were reported in cases of severe malaria. Our data indicated that the HO-1 mRNA and protein expression are increased in mice that develop malaria-associated ALI/ARDS (MA-ALI/ARDS). Additionally, the hemin, a HO-1 inducing drug, prevented mice from developing MA-ALI/ARDS when administered prior to the development of MA-ALI/ARDS in this model. Also, hemin treatment showed an amelioration of respiratory parameters in mice, high VEGF levels in the sera, and a decrease in vascular permeability in the lung, which are signs of ALI/ARDS. Therefore, the induction of HO-1 before the development of MA-ALI/ARDS could be protective. However, the increased expression of HO-1 on the onset of MA-ALI/ARDS development may represent an effort to revert the phenotype of this syndrome by the host. We therefore confirm that HO-1 inducing drugs could be used for prevention of MA-ALI/ARDS in humans. Marcelo L. M. Pereira, Luana S. Ortolan, Michelle K. Sercundes, Daniela Debone, Oscar Murillo, Flávia A. Lima, Claudio R. F. Marinho, and Sabrina Epiphanio Copyright © 2016 Marcelo L. M. Pereira et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Sphingolipids as Mediators in the Crosstalk between Microbiota and Intestinal Cells: Implications for Inflammatory Bowel Disease” Mon, 14 Nov 2016 10:34:08 +0000 Bryan Phillips-Farfán, Karla Carvajal, Edgar Alejandro Medina-Torres, Sara Elva Espinosa-Padilla, Gemma Fabrias, and Luz Camacho Copyright © 2016 Bryan Phillips-Farfán et al. All rights reserved. Neuroinflammation Induced by Surgery Does Not Impair the Reference Memory of Young Adult Mice Sun, 13 Nov 2016 14:19:19 +0000 Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) increases morbidity and mortality after surgery. But the underlying mechanism is not clear yet. While age is now accepted as the top one risk factor for POCD, results from studies investigating postoperative cognitive functions in adults have been controversial, and data about the very young adult individuals are lacking. The present study investigated the spatial reference memory, IL-1β, IL-6, and microglia activation changes in the hippocampus in 2-month-old mice after anesthesia and surgery. We found that hippocampal IL-1β and IL-6 increased at 6 hours after surgery. Microglia were profoundly activated in the hippocampus 6 to 24 hours after surgery. However, no significant behavior changes were found in these mice. These results indicate that although anesthesia and surgery led to neuroinflammation, the latter was insufficient to impair the spatial reference memory of young adult mice. Yanhua Zhao, Lili Huang, Huan Xu, Guangxi Wu, Mengyi Zhu, Jie Tian, Hao Wang, Xiangrui Wang, Weifeng Yu, Liqun Yang, and Diansan Su Copyright © 2016 Yanhua Zhao et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Immunonutrition on the Postoperative Complications in Thymoma with Myasthenia Gravis Thu, 10 Nov 2016 14:01:59 +0000 Object. To test whether preoperative immunonutrition is efficacious in reducing postoperative complications in patients of thymoma with myasthenia gravis (MG). Material and Methods. A total of 244 patients operated on for thymoma with myasthenia gravis were prospectively assigned to two groups, each receiving seven-day preoperative and seven-day postoperative nutrition. The patients in immunonutrition group were given oral immunonutrition (IN). The patients in control group received oral standard nutrition. Immunonutritional and inflammatory biomarkers (IgA, IgG, IgM, CD3t, CD4t, CD8t, CD4t/CD8t ratio, NK-cell, prealbumin, albumin, white blood cells counts, and C-reactive protein) and clinical variables (age, gender, BMI, performance status, type of thymoma, type of MG, operative time, pathology, operative approach, postoperative complications, quantity of drainage, hospital stays) were examined. Results. A significant reduction in the length of hospital stay, quantity of drainage, and postoperative complications was observed in the IN group (). An increase in the level of IgA, IgG, IgM, CD3+T, CD4+T, CD4+T/CD8+T, WBC, CRP, and NK-cell in the IN group was observed after thymectomy, while a decrease was seen with regard to prealbumin and albumin (). Conclusion. Preoperative immunonutrition support is effective in reducing postoperative complications in patients of thymoma with MG. It helps to lower the risk of postoperative infectious complications and hospital stays. Yanzhong Xin, Hongfei Cai, Lihui Wu, and Youbin Cui Copyright © 2016 Yanzhong Xin et al. All rights reserved. Tolerance in Kidney Transplantation: What Is on the B Side? Thu, 10 Nov 2016 11:24:21 +0000 Regulatory B cells (Breg) are in the spotlight for their role in immune homeostasis maintenance and tolerance achievement as in the last years the correlation with functional and increased Breg numbers in autoimmune diseases and transplantation has been extensively proven. Their study is, however, in its infancy with still little knowledge and consensus on their origin, phenotype, and mechanism of action. All this hampers the pursuit of an effective Breg induction method for therapeutic purposes. In this review we aim to summarize the studies on human Breg and their implication in kidney transplantation and to further discuss the issues surrounding therapeutic applications of this cell subset. Laura Carreras-Planella, Francesc E. Borràs, and Marcella Franquesa Copyright © 2016 Laura Carreras-Planella et al. All rights reserved. NEMO-Binding Domain Peptide Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Inhibiting the NF-κB Signaling Pathway Wed, 09 Nov 2016 12:05:16 +0000 The aim of the present study is to investigate the protective effects and relevant mechanisms exerted by NEMO-binding domain peptide (NBD) against lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. The ALI model was induced by intratracheally administered atomized LPS (5 mg/kg) to BABL/c mice. Half an hour before LPS administration, we treated the mice with increasing concentrations of intratracheally administered NBD or saline aerosol. Two hours after LPS administration, each group of mice was sacrificed. We observed that NBD pretreatment significantly attenuated LPS-induced lung histopathological injury in a dose-dependent manner. Western blotting established that NBD pretreatment obviously attenuated LPS-induced IκB-α and NF-κBp65 activation and NOX1, NOX2, and NOX4 overexpression. Furthermore, NBD pretreatment increased SOD and T-AOC activity and decreased MDA levels in lung tissue. In addition, NBD also inhibited TNF-α and IL-1β secretion in BALF after LPS challenge. In conclusion, NBD protects against LPS-induced ALI in mice. Jianhua Huang, Li Li, Weifeng Yuan, Linxin Zheng, Zhenhui Guo, and Wenjie Huang Copyright © 2016 Jianhua Huang et al. All rights reserved. Enterococcus faecium HDRsEf1 Protects the Intestinal Epithelium and Attenuates ETEC-Induced IL-8 Secretion in Enterocytes Mon, 07 Nov 2016 06:23:19 +0000 The probiotic Enterococcus faecium HDRsEf1 (Ef1) has been shown to have positive effects on piglet diarrhoea, but the mechanism has not yet been elucidated. In this study, using the IPEC-J2 cell line to mimic intestinal epithelial cells and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88ac as a representative intestinal pathogen, the mechanism underlying Ef1 protection against an enteropathogen was investigated. The results demonstrated that Ef1 was effective in displacing K88ac from the IPEC-J2 cell layer. Moreover, Ef1 and its cell-free supernatant (S-Ef1) modulate IL-8 released by IPEC-J2 cells. Ef1 and its cell-free supernatant showed the potential to protect enterocytes from an acute inflammatory response. In addition, Ef1 and its cell-free supernatant increased the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of the enterocyte monolayer, thus strengthening the intestinal barrier against ETEC. These results may contribute to the development of therapeutic interventions using Ef1 in intestinal disorders of piglets. Zhongyuan Tian, Xiaofang Liu, Ran Dai, Yuncai Xiao, Xiliang Wang, Dingren Bi, and Deshi Shi Copyright © 2016 Zhongyuan Tian et al. All rights reserved. Veronicastrum axillare Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury via Suppression of Proinflammatory Mediators and Downregulation of the NF-κB Signaling Pathway Sun, 06 Nov 2016 07:19:46 +0000 Veronicastrum axillare is a traditional medical plant in China which is widely used in folk medicine due to its versatile biological activities, especially for its anti-inflammatory effects. However, the detailed mechanism underlying this action is not clear. Here, we studied the protective effects of V. axillare against acute lung injury (ALI), and we further explored the pharmacological mechanisms of this action. We found that pretreatment with V. axillare suppressed the release of proinflammatory cytokines in the serum of ALI mice. Histological analysis of lung tissue demonstrated that V. axillare inhibited LPS-induced lung injury, improved lung morphology, and reduced the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the lungs. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory actions of V. axillare were investigated in vitro. We observed that V. axillare suppressed the mRNA expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in RAW264.7 cells challenged with LPS. Furthermore, pretreatment of V. axillare in vitro reduced the phosphorylation of p65 and IκB-α which is activated by LPS. In conclusion, our data firstly demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effects of V. axillare against ALI were achieved through downregulation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, thereby reducing the production of inflammatory mediators. Quanxin Ma, Kai Wang, Qinqin Yang, Shun Ping, Weichun Zhao, Qiyang Shou, Weimin Zhou, and Minli Chen Copyright © 2016 Quanxin Ma et al. All rights reserved. Long Noncoding RNAs in Metabolic Syndrome Related Disorders Wed, 02 Nov 2016 07:58:42 +0000 Ribonucleic acids (RNAs) are very complex and their all functions have yet to be fully clarified. Noncoding genes (noncoding RNA, sequences, and pseudogenes) comprise 67% of all genes and they are represented by housekeeping noncoding RNAs (transfer RNA (tRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA), and small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA)) that are engaged in basic cellular processes and by regulatory noncoding RNA (short and long noncoding RNA (ncRNA)) that are important for gene expression/transcript stability. In this review, we summarize data concerning the significance of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in metabolic syndrome related disorders, focusing on adipose tissue and pancreatic islands. Magdalena Losko, Jerzy Kotlinowski, and Jolanta Jura Copyright © 2016 Magdalena Losko et al. All rights reserved. Forskolin Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Modulation of MCP-1 and GPR120 in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes through an Inhibition of NFB Wed, 02 Nov 2016 06:28:52 +0000 In an obese state, Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) upregulates proinflammatory adipokines secretion including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in adipose tissue. In contrast, G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) mediates antiobesity effects. The aim of this study was to determine the signaling pathway by which Forskolin (FK), a cyclic adenosine monophosphate- (cAMP-) promoting agent causing positive changes in body composition in overweight and obese adult men, affects MCP-1 and GPR120 expression during an inflammatory response induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in adipocytes, such as in an obese state. 3T3-L1 cells differentiated into adipocytes (DC) were stimulated with LPS in the absence or presence of FK and inhibitors of TLR-4 and inhibitor of kappa B (IκBα). In DC, LPS increased MCP-1, TLR-4, and nuclear factor-κB1 (NFκB1) mRNA levels, whereas it decreased GPR120 mRNA levels. In DC, FK inhibited the LPS-induced increase in MCP-1, TLR-4, and NFκB1 mRNA levels and the LPS-induced decrease in GPR120 mRNA. BAY11-7082 and CLI-095 abolished these LPS-induced effects. In conclusion, FK inhibits LPS-induced increase in MCP-1 mRNA levels and decrease in GPR120 mRNA levels in adipocytes and may be a potential treatment for inflammation in obesity. Furthermore, TLR-4-induced activation of NFκB may be involved in the LPS-induced regulation of these genes. Jeanne Durendale Chiadak, Tatjana Arsenijevic, Kevin Verstrepen, Françoise Gregoire, Nargis Bolaky, Valérie Delforge, Véronique Flamand, Jason Perret, and Christine Delporte Copyright © 2016 Jeanne Durendale Chiadak et al. All rights reserved. Therapeutic Treatment of Arthritic Mice with 15-Deoxy Δ12,14-Prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) Ameliorates Disease through the Suppression of Th17 Cells and the Induction of CD4+CD25−FOXP3+ Cells Mon, 31 Oct 2016 12:35:25 +0000 The prostaglandin, 15-deoxy -prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), is a lipid mediator that plays an important role in the control of chronic inflammatory disease. However, the role of prostanoid in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is not well determined. We demonstrated the therapeutic effect of 15d-PGJ2 in an experimental model of arthritis. Daily administration of 15d-PGJ2 attenuated the severity of CIA, reducing the clinical score, pain, and edema. 15d-PGJ2 treatment was associated with a marked reduction in joint levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Although the mRNA expression of ROR-γt was profoundly reduced, FOXP3 was enhanced in draining lymph node cells from 15d-PGJ2-treated arthritic mice. The specific and polyclonal CD4+ Th17 cell responses were limited during the addition of prostaglandin to cell culture. Moreover, in vitro 15d-PGJ2 increased the expression of FOXP3, GITR, and CTLA-4 in the CD4+CD25− population, suggesting the induction of Tregs on conventional T cells. Prostanoid addition to CD4+CD25− cells selectively suppressed Th17 differentiation and promoted the enhancement of FOXP3 under polarization conditions. Thus, 15d-PGJ2 ameliorated symptoms of collagen-induced arthritis by regulating Th17 differentiation, concomitant with the induction of Tregs, and, consequently, protected mice from diseases aggravation. Altogether, these results indicate that 15d-PGJ2 may represent a potential therapeutic strategy in RA. Vanessa Carregaro, Marcelo H. Napimoga, Raphael S. Peres, Luciana Benevides, Laís Amorim Sacramento, Larissa G. Pinto, Renata Grespan, Thiago M. Cunha, João Santana da Silva, and Fernando Q. Cunha Copyright © 2016 Vanessa Carregaro et al. All rights reserved. Vaginal Lactoferrin Modulates PGE2, MMP-9, MMP-2, and TIMP-1 Amniotic Fluid Concentrations Mon, 31 Oct 2016 11:51:49 +0000 Inflammation plays an important role in pregnancy, and cytokine and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) imbalance has been associated with premature rupture of membranes and increased risk of preterm delivery. Previous studies have demonstrated that lactoferrin (LF), an iron-binding protein with anti-inflammatory properties, is able to decrease amniotic fluid (AF) levels of IL-6. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of vaginal LF administration on amniotic fluid PGE2 level and MMP-TIMP system in women undergoing genetic amniocentesis. One hundred and eleven women were randomly divided into controls () or treated with LF 4 hours before amniocentesis (). Amniotic fluid PGE2, active MMP-9 and MMP-2, and TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 concentrations were determined by commercially available assays and the values were normalized by AF creatinine concentration. PGE2, active MMP-9, and its inhibitor TIMP-1 were lower in LF-treated group than in controls (, , and , resp.). Conversely, active MMP-2 () and MMP-2/TIMP-2 molar ratio () were increased, whilst TIMP-2 was unchanged. Our data suggest that LF administration is able to modulate the inflammatory response following amniocentesis, which may counteract cytokine and prostanoid imbalance that leads to abortion. This trial is registered with Clinical Trial number NCT02695563. Alessandro Trentini, Martina Maritati, Carlo Cervellati, Maria C. Manfrinato, Arianna Gonelli, Carlo A. Volta, Fortunato Vesce, Pantaleo Greco, Franco Dallocchio, Tiziana Bellini, and Carlo Contini Copyright © 2016 Alessandro Trentini et al. All rights reserved. Proliferative Effects of Histamine on Primary Human Pterygium Fibroblasts Sun, 30 Oct 2016 13:47:32 +0000 Purpose. It has been confirmed that inflammatory cytokines are involved in the progression of pterygium. Histamine can enhance proliferation and migration of many cells. Therefore, we intend to investigate the proliferative and migratory effects of histamine on primary culture of human pterygium fibroblasts (HPFs). Methods. Pterygium and conjunctiva samples were obtained from surgery, and toluidine blue staining was used to identify mast cells. 3-[4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) was performed to evaluate the proliferative rate of HPFs and human conjunctival fibroblasts (HCFs); ki67 expression was also measured by immunofluorescence analysis. Histamine receptor-1 (H1R) antagonist (Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride) and histamine receptor-2 (H2R) antagonist (Nizatidine) were added to figure out which receptor was involved. Wound healing model was used to evaluate the migratory ability of HPFs. Results. The numbers of total mast cells and degranulated mast cells were both higher in pterygium than in conjunctiva. Histamine had a proliferative effect on both HPFs and HCFs, the effective concentration (10 μmol/L) on HPFs was lower than on HCFs (100 μmol/L), and the effect could be blocked by H1R antagonist. Histamine showed no migratory effect on HPFs. Conclusion. Histamine may play an important role in the proliferation of HPFs and act through H1R. Zhenwei Qin, Qiuli Fu, Lifang Zhang, Houfa Yin, Xiuming Jin, Qiaomei Tang, Danni Lyu, and Ke Yao Copyright © 2016 Zhenwei Qin et al. All rights reserved. The Role of Interleukin-17 in Lung Cancer Sun, 30 Oct 2016 12:48:30 +0000 Tumour-associated inflammation is a hallmark of malignant carcinomas, and lung cancer is a typical inflammation-associated carcinoma. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is an important inflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and in inflammation-associated tumours. Numerous studies have shown that IL-17 directly or indirectly promotes tumour angiogenesis and cell proliferation and that it inhibits apoptosis via the activation of inflammatory signalling pathways. Therefore, IL-17 contributes to the metastasis and progression of lung cancer. Research advances with respect to the role of IL-17 in lung cancer will be presented as a review in this paper. Feng Wu, Juanjuan Xu, Qi Huang, Jieli Han, Limin Duan, Jinshuo Fan, Zhilei Lv, Mengfei Guo, Guorong Hu, Lian Chen, Shuai Zhang, Xiaonan Tao, Wanli Ma, and Yang Jin Copyright © 2016 Feng Wu et al. All rights reserved. Interferon-Stimulated Gene 15 Conjugation Stimulates Hepatitis B Virus Production Independent of Type I Interferon Signaling Pathway In Vitro Thu, 27 Oct 2016 09:08:16 +0000 Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an important account of infectious hepatitis and interferon (IFN) remains one of the best treatment options. Activation of type I IFN signaling pathway leads to expressions of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) which play important roles in antiviral and immunomodulatory responses to HBV or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Our previous studies indicated that ISG15 and its conjugation (ISGylation) were exploited by HCV to benefit its replication and persistent infection. This study was designed to assess the role of ISG15 and ISGylation in HBV infection in vitro. The levels of ISG15 and ISGylation were upregulated by ISG15 plasmid transfection into HepG2.2.15 cells. Decreased ISGylation was achieved by siRNA targeting UBE1L, the only E1 activating enzyme for ISGylation. Overexpression of ISG15 and subsequent ISGylation significantly increased the levels of HBV DNA in the culture supernatants although the intracellular viral replication remained unaffected. Silencing UBE1L, with decreased ISGylation achieved, abrogated this ISGylation-mediated promoting effect. Our data indicated that overexpression of ISG15 stimulated HBV production in an ISGylation-dependent manner. Identification of ISG15-conjugated proteins (either HBV viral or host proteins) may reveal promising candidates for further antiviral drug development. Yujia Li, Shilin Li, Xiaoqiong Duan, Yanzhao Chen, Baihai Jiao, Haiyan Ye, Min Yao, and Limin Chen Copyright © 2016 Yujia Li et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Interleukin-15 on CD11b, CD54, and CD62L Expression on Natural Killer Cell and Natural Killer T-Like Cells in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Wed, 26 Oct 2016 12:18:42 +0000 Adhesion molecules may play an important role in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis. We investigated the effect of interleukin- (IL-) 15 on CD11b, CD54, and CD62L expression on natural killer (NK) cells, T cells, and CD56+CD3+ NKT-like cells from SLE subjects and healthy controls. SLE patients had decreased circulating NK cells and NKT-like cells compared to controls. NK cells from SLE patients showed higher CD11b and CD62L expression compared to controls. IL-15 enhanced CD11b and CD54 but downregulated CD62L expression on NK cells from SLE patients. Similar observations were found for T cells and NKT-like cells. NK cells from SLE patients expressed higher CD56 than controls; both could be further enhanced by IL-15. IL-15 also enhanced CD56 expression of NKT-like cells from SLE patients. A greater degree of IL-15 induced downregulation of CD62L on NKT-like cells noted in SLE patients compared to controls. The percentage of CD11b expressing NK cells and the % inhibition of CD62L expression on NKT-like cells by IL-15 correlated with serum anti-dsDNA levels in SLE patients, respectively. Taken together, we demonstrated the dysfunctional NK and NKT-like cells in SLE patients with regard to CD11b and CD62L expression and their response to IL-15. Syh-Jae Lin, Ji-Yih Chen, Ming-Ling Kuo, Hsiu-Shan Hsiao, Pei-Tzu Lee, and Jing-Long Huang Copyright © 2016 Syh-Jae Lin et al. All rights reserved.