Minimally Invasive Surgery / 2018 / Article / Fig 5

Review Article

3D Printing Applications in Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery

Figure 5

Navigation template-assisted pedicle screw fixation in upper cervical spine. (a) Navigation template pressed to fit with vertebra. (b) Placement of navigation protective sleeve. (c) Kirschner wire perforated along protective sleeve. (d) Pedicle screw fixation (source: reproduced and adapted with permission from Guo et al.).

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