Table 3: Published peer-reviewed studies utilizing various bone grafts in MIS interbody fusion procedures identified through our literature search.

Bone graft materialAuthor and yearType of procedureType of material used in disc spaceType of material used in the cageMethod of fusion evaluationNumber of patientsFusion rate (%)

Autograft (local and ICBG)Yoo et al. 2015 [13]MIS-TLIFNAAutograft (local + ICBG)X-ray + CT1190.9
Schizas et al. 2009 [14]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local + ICBG)Autograft (local + ICBG)X-ray1883.3

Autograft (local) aloneZhang et al. 2017 [15]MIS-TLIFNAAutograft (local)X-ray + CT26100
Rajakumar et al. 2017 [16]MIS-TLIFNAAutograft (local)X-ray3697.2
Yang et al. 2017 [17]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local)Autograft (local)NA2185.7
Huang et al. 2017 [18]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local)Autograft (local)X-ray5887.9
Choi et al. 2017 [19]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local)Autograft (local)CT4495.2
Choi et al. 201 7[19]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local)Autograft (local)CT4096.6
Lv et al. 2017 [20]MIS-TLIFNAAutograft (local)CT5096.0
Fan et al. 2016 [21]MIS-TLIFNAAutograft (local)X-ray4192.7
Fan et al. 2016 [21]MIS-TLIFNAAutograft (local)X-ray3781.1
Tian and Liu 2016 [22]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local)NACT4790.0
Tian and Liu 2016 [22]W-TLIFAutograft (local)NACT5088.9
Fan et al. 2016 [23]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local)Autograft (local)X-ray2491.7
Fan et al. 2016 [23]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local)Autograft (local)X-ray2185.7
Yang et al. 2015 [24]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local)Autograft (local)X-ray5088.0
Liu et al. 2015 [25]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local)NAX-ray4281.0
Liu et al. 2015 [25]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local)NAX-ray4295.2
Lee et al. 2016 [26]MIS-TLIFNAAutograft (local)X-ray + CT2781.5
Chen et al. 2015 [27]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local)NACT42100
Chen et al. 2015 [27]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local)NACT36100
Kim et al. 2015 [28]MIS-TLIFNAAutograft (local)CT1888.9
Kim et al. 2015[28]MIS-TLIFNAAutograft (local)CT2387.0
Zhang et al. 2015 [29]MMI-TLIFAutograft (local)NANA4981.7
Gu et al. 2015 [30]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local)Autograft (local)X-ray3594.3
Gu et al. 2015 [30]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local)Autograft (local)X-ray3994.9
Shen et al. 2014 [31]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local)NACT3196.8
Shen et al. 2014 [31]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local)NACT34100.0
Gu et al. 2014 [32]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local)Autograft (local)X-ray4493.2
Choi et al. 2013 [33]MIS-TLIFNAAutograft (local)X-ray + CT2684.6
Choi et al. 2013 [33]MIS-TLIFNAAutograft (local)X-ray + CT2796.3
Sonmez et al. 2013 [34]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local)Autograft (local)X-ray1080.0
Sonmez et al. 2013 [34]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local)Autograft (local)X-ray1090.0
Wang et al. 2014 [35]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local)NAX-ray + CT4397.7
Kasliwal and Deutsch 2012 [36]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local)Autograft (local)CT4067.5
Scheufler et al. 2007 [37]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local)Autograft (local)CT4693.5

Autograft (ICBG) aloneSerban et al. 2017 [38]MIS-TLIFAutograft (ICBG)NACT4090
Fan et al. 2010 [39]MIS-TLIFAutograft (ICBG)Autograft (ICBG)X-ray32100
Peng et al. 2009 [40]MIS-TLIFAutograft (ICBG)NAX-ray29100
Ohtori et al. 2015 [41]OLIFNAAutograft (ICBG)CT1290

Autograft + allograftHe et al. 2017 [42]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local) + AllograftAutograft (local) + AllograftCT4292.9
Lee et al. 2016 [43]MIS-TLIFNAAutograft (local) + AllograftX-ray38100
Lim and Kim 2013 [44]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local) + AllograftNAX-ray + CT19100
Kim et al. 2011 [45]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local) + AllograftAutograft (local) + AllograftX-ray5696.4
Jang and Lee 2005 [46]MIS-TLIFNAAutograft (local +/− ICBG) + AllograftX-ray2391.7

Allograft aloneAhmadian et al. 2015 [47]MIS-LIFAllograft (unclear interbody or in cage)X-rays +/− CT4089.7

BMA (as extender)Hawasli et al. 2017 [48]MIS-TLIFAllograft + bmaAutograft (local) + BMAX-ray +/− CT4493.2
Nandyala et al. 2014 [49]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local) + rhBMP-2 + BMAAutograft (local)CT6593.8
Woods et al. 2017 [50]OLIFDBM + BMA + rhBMP-2DBM + BMA + rhBMP-2CT13797.9
Abbasi et al. 2017 [51]OLLIFβ-TCP + BMANANA24100
Rodgers et al. 2012 [52]XLIFFormagraft (β-TCP + HA) + BMA
(unclear interbody or in cage)
X-ray + CT4493.2
Rodgers et al. 2010 [53]Mini-ALIF
XLIF
Autograft (local) + Allograft + DBM + BMACT6697.0

DBM (as extender)Choi et al. 2016 [54]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local) + DBMAutograft (local) + DBMCT2195.2
Kuo et al. 2016 [55]MIS-TLIFNAAutograft (local) + DBMX-ray + CT2277.3
Park et al. 2014 [56]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local) + DBMNA8380.7
Lee et al. 2012 [57]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local) + DBMNAX-ray7297.0
Park et al. 2011 [58]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local) + DBMNACT6677.3
Woods et al. 2017 [50]OLIFDBM + BMA + rhBMP-2DBM + BMA + rhBMP-2CT13797.9
Rodgers et al. 2010 [53]Mini-ALIF/XLIFAutograft (local) + Allograft + DBM + BMACT6697.0

Ceramic (as extender)Yoo et al. 2014 [59]MIS-TLIFNAAutograft (local) + HAX-ray + CT9287.0
Yoo et al. 2015 [13]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local) + HAAutograft (local)X-ray + CT4987.8
Yoo et al. 2015 [13]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local) + HAAutograft (local)X-ray + CT2885.7
Lin and Chiang 2014 [60]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local) + SinboneHT (60% HA, 40% TCP)NAX-ray4883.3
Malham et al. 2017 [61]XLIFNAMastergraft (β-TCP + HA) + rhBMP-2CT2195.2
Malham et al. 2017 [61]XLIFNAMastergraft (β-TCP + HA) + rhBMP-2CT1980.0
Abbasi et al. 2017 [51]OLLIFβ-TCP + BMANANA24100
Waddell et al. 2014 [62]LLIFNAMastergraft (β-TCP + HA) + rhBMP-2CT2198.0
Rodgers et al. 2012 [52]XLIFFormagraft (β-TCP + HA) + BMA
(unclear interbody or in cage)
X-ray + CT4493.2
Dakwar et al. 2010 [63]XLIFNATCP + HA + rhBMP-2X-ray +/− CT20100.0

Ceramics aloneAlimi et al. 2017 [64]MIS-TLIFNASi-CaPCT5776.3
Parker and Malham 2017 [65]XLIFNAAttraX (β-TCP + HA)CT2580.0
Alimi et al. 2017 [64]XLIFNASi-CaPCT4482.1
Berjano et al. 2015 [66]XLIFNAAttraX (β-TCP + HA)X-ray + CT1383.0
Berjano et al. 2015 [66]XLIFNACalcium TriphosphateX-ray + CT3589.0
Marchi et al. 2013 [67]XLIFCalcium Phosphate (unclear interbody or in cage)CT7491.0
Pimenta et al. 2013 [68]XLIFSi-CaP (unclear interbody or in cage)X-ray + CT15100.0

rhBMP-2 (with another graft)Wang and Grossman 2016 [69]MIS-TLIFrhBMP-2AllograftX-ray1087.5
Siddiqui et al. 2016 [70]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local) + rhBMP-2Autograft (local)X-ray14898.5
Nandyala et al. 2013 [49]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local) + rhBMP-2 + BMAAutograft (local)CT6593.8
Tsahtsarlis and Wood 2012 [71]MIS-TLIFNAAutograft (local) + rhBMP-2CT3497.1
Rouben et al. 2011 [72]MIS-TLIFNAAutograft (local) + rhBMP-2X-ray + CT16996.0
Park and Foley 2008 [73]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local) + rhBMP-2Autograft (local) + rhBMP-2CT40100
Deutsch and Musacchio Jr. 2006 [74]MIS-TLIFAutograft (local) + rhBMP-2Autograft (local) + rhBMP-2CT2065.0
Malham et al. 2017 [61]XLIFNAMastergraft (β-TCP + HA) + rhBMP-2CT2195.2
Malham et al. 2017 [61]XLIFNAMastergraft (β-TCP + HA) + rhBMP-2CT1980.0
Woods et al. 2017 [50]OLIFDBM + BMA + rhBMP-2DBM + BMA + rhBMP-2CT13797.9
Ahmadian et al. 2015 [47]MIS-LIFAllograft + rhBMP-2 (unclear interbody or in cage)X-rays +/− CT19100.0
Waddell et al. 2014 [62]LLIFNAMastergraft (β-TCP + HA) + rhBMP-2CT2198.0
Castellvi et al. 2014 [75]LLIFNAAllograft + rhBMP-2CT36100.0
Dakwar et al. 2010 [63]XLIFNATCP + HA + rhBMP-2X-ray +/− CT20100.0
Aryan et al. 2008 [76]AxiaLIFAutograft (local) + rhBMP-2X-ray +/− CT3591.4

rhBMP-2 aloneDahdaleh et al. 2013 [77]MIS-TLIFNArhBMP-2X-ray2095.0
Dahdaleh et al. 2013 [77]MIS-TLIFNArhBMP-2X-ray1693.8
Parker and Malham 2017 [65]XLIFNArhBMP-2CT10796.3
Pimenta et al. 2013 [68]XLIFrhBMP-2 (unclear interbody or in cage)X-ray + CT15100.0

MIS, minimally invasive spine; TLIF, transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion; ALIF, anterior lumbar interbody fusion; XLIF, extreme lateral interbody fusion; OLIF, oblique lumbar interbody fusion; OLLIF, oblique lateral lumbar interbody fusion; ICBG, iliac crest bone graft; BMA, bone marrow aspirate; DBM, demineralized bone graft; rhBMP-2, recombinant morphogenetic protein 2; HA, hydroxyapatite; TCP, tricalcium phosphate; Si-CaP, silicated calcium phosphate; CT, computed tomography; NA, not available.