Table 1: Validated models for microvascular anastomosis practice.

TypeAuthorModel Approximate cost, availability, logisticsValidity

Non-animalMeier et al., 2004 [5]Silicone and polymer microtubes$10–100 cost, no need for coordination with the ethics committee, simple technical equipmentHigh constructive validity, low face validity
Guler and Rao, 1990 [6]Surgical gloveNo cost, no need for coordination with the ethics committee, simple technical equipmentHigh constructive validity, low face validity

AnimalBates et al., 2013 [7]Poultry blood vesselsLittle to moderate cost, no need for coordination with the ethics committee, simple technical equipmentHigh constructive validity, low face validity
Shurey et al., 2014 [8]Live laboratory animals (rat)Average cost $120, requires protocol approval by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, requires vivarium and animal care staff, requires pharmaceuticals and training for administration of anesthesiaHigh face and constructive validity
Belykh et al., 2016 [9]Bovine placental arteriesNo to little cost, anatomical relevance, requires coordination with local dairy. Does not require approval from ethics committeeHigh construct, content, and constructive validity

HumanAboud et al., 2002 [10]Perfused cadaversHigh cost of cadaveric material, requires special laboratory space to work with cadaver material, normal vessel structure and feel usually disrupted by preservation techniquesNo formal validation performed
Tellioglu et al., 2009 [11]Human cadaveric vesselsHigh cost of cadaveric material, preservation techniques, time or temperature changes may damage vessel structure and feel, requires special laboratory space to work with cadaver materialNo formal validation performed
Belykh et al., 2016 [9]Human placental arteriesNo cost, anatomical relevance, requires coordination with obstetrics department, requires protocol approval from the ethics committeeHigh construct, content, and constructive validity

TechnicalAlrasheed et al., 2014 [12]Robotic systemsHigh cost of equipment and servicesNo formal validity of microscope or robot