Minimally Invasive Surgery The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Routine Cysticotomy and Flushing of the Cystic Duct in Patients with Low Risk of Common Duct Stones: Can It Be Beneficial? Tue, 11 Jul 2017 07:48:47 +0000 Background. Gallstone disease affects 15–20% of the general population and up to 20% of these patients present common bile duct stones. Aim. This observational study reports our experience on routine cysticotomy and flushing of the cystic duct in patients with low risk of common duct stones. Materials and Methods. We analyzed 731 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy between September 2013 and September 2015. Results. Patients were preoperatively stratified on the clinical risk; those presenting with low preoperative risk of common bile duct stones were referred to undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy and routine cysticotomy with bile duct flushing. Patients presenting thick bile sludge, solid debrides, and/or increased tension of bile outflow underwent unplanned cholangiography. No intraoperative complications or conversion to open technique occurred. Average follow-up time was 22,8 months (range 12 to 37). Rate of retained ductal stones accounted for 0,3%. Conclusions. Routine cysticotomy and bile flushing in our experience is a valid, simple, and not time consuming manoeuvre that can help decompressing and flushing CBD. Moreover, it is a valid tool for extending selective IOC approach in a focused manner. Further evaluations have to be conducted to evaluate risks and effectiveness of this manoeuvre. Piera Leon, Fabiola Giudici, Antonio Sciuto, and Francesco Corcione Copyright © 2017 Piera Leon et al. All rights reserved. Technical Details of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy Leading to Lowered Leak Rate: Discussion of 1070 Consecutive Cases Thu, 06 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Introduction. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is a widely utilized and effective surgical procedure for dramatic weight loss in obese patients. Leak at the sleeve staple line is the most serious complication of this procedure, occurring in 1–3% of cases. Techniques to minimize the risk of sleeve gastrectomy leaks have been published although no universally agreed upon set of techniques exists. This report describes a single-surgeon experience with an approach to sleeve leak prevention resulting in a progressive decrease in leak rate over 5 years. Methods. 1070 consecutive sleeve gastrectomy cases between 2012 and 2016 were reviewed retrospectively. Patient characteristics, sleeve leaks, and percent body weight loss at 6 months were reported for each year. Conceptual and technical changes aimed towards leak reduction are presented. Results. With the implementation of the described techniques of the sleeve gastrectomy, the rate of sleeve leaks fell from 4% in 2012 to 0% in 2015 and 2016 without a significant change in weight loss, as depicted by 6-month change in body weight and percent excess BMI lost. Conclusion. In this single-surgeon experience, sleeve gastrectomy leak rate has fallen to 0% since the implementation of specific technical modifications in the procedure. David L. Warner and Kent C. Sasse Copyright © 2017 David L. Warner and Kent C. Sasse. All rights reserved. TULAA: A Minimally Invasive Appendicectomy Technique for the Paediatric Patient Sun, 18 Dec 2016 12:57:45 +0000 TULAA or Transumbilical Laparoscopic Assisted Appendicectomy is a minimally invasive technique described by Pelosi in 1992 for the removal of the inflamed appendix. Its main advantage is the possibility of exploring the peritoneal cavity and performing a simple and safe extracorporeal appendicectomy. Since its first description, different authors reported their experience with such technique. The aim of this review is to summarise the surgical outcomes currently reported in the literature for this minimally invasive surgical approach and compare it with standard open and laparoscopic appendicectomy. Giordano Perin and Maria Grazia Scarpa Copyright © 2016 Giordano Perin and Maria Grazia Scarpa. All rights reserved. Laparoscopic Repair of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia in Adults Thu, 15 Dec 2016 06:15:19 +0000 Background, Aims, and Objectives. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia typically presents in childhood but in adults is extremely rare entity. Surgery is indicated for symptomatic and asymptomatic patients who are fit for surgery. It can be done by laparotomy, thoracotomy, thoracoscopy, or laparoscopy. With the advent of minimal access techniques, the open surgical repair for this hernia has decreased and results are comparable with early recovery and less hospital stay. The aim of this study is to establish that laparoscopic repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a safe and effective modality of surgical treatment. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study of laparoscopic diaphragmatic hernia repair done during May 2011 to Oct 2014. Total (M/F: 11/2) cases of confirmed diaphragmatic hernia on CT scan, 4 cases Bochdalek hernia (BH), 8 cases of left eventration of the diaphragm (ED), and one case of right-sided eventration of the diaphragm (ED) were included in the study. Largest defect found on the left side was 15 × 6 cm and on the right side it was 15 × 8 cm. Stomach, small intestine, transverse colon, and omentum were contents in the hernial sac. The contents were reduced with harmonic scalpel and thin sacs were usually excised. The eventration was plicated and hernial orifices were repaired with interrupted horizontal mattress sutures buttressed by Teflon pieces. A composite mesh was fixed with nonabsorbable tackers. All patients had good postoperative recovery and went home early with normal follow-up and were followed up for 2 years. Conclusion. The laparoscopic repair is a safe and effective modality of surgical treatment for congenital diaphragmatic hernia in experienced hands. Sanjay Kumar Saroj, Satendra Kumar, Yusuf Afaque, Abhishek Kumar Bhartia, and Vishnu Kumar Bhartia Copyright © 2016 Sanjay Kumar Saroj et al. All rights reserved. Complications, Not Minimally Invasive Surgical Technique, Are Associated with Increased Cost after Esophagectomy Thu, 08 Dec 2016 08:45:03 +0000 Background. Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) techniques offer similar oncological and surgical outcomes to open methods. The effects of MIE on hospital costs are not well documented. Methods. We reviewed the electronic records of patients who underwent esophagectomy at a single academic institution between January 2012 and December 2014. Esophagectomy techniques were grouped into open, hybrid, MIE, and transhiatal (THE) esophagectomy. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the impact of surgery on total hospital cost after esophagectomy. Results. 80 patients were identified: 11 THE, 11 open, 41 hybrid, and 17 MIE. Median total cost of the hospitalization was $31,375 and was similar between surgical technique groups. MIE was associated with higher intraoperative costs, but not total hospital cost. Multivariable analysis revealed that the presence of a complication, increased age, American Society of Anesthesiologists class IV (ASA4), and preoperative coronary artery disease (CAD) were associated with significantly increased cost. Conclusions. Despite the association of MIE with higher operation costs, the total hospital cost was not different between surgical technique groups. Postoperative complications and severe preoperative comorbidities are significant drivers of hospital cost associated with esophagectomy. Surgeons should choose technique based on clinical factors, rather than cost implications. Sue J. Fu, Vanessa P. Ho, Jennifer Ginsberg, Yaron Perry, Conor P. Delaney, Philip A. Linden, and Christopher W. Towe Copyright © 2016 Sue J. Fu et al. All rights reserved. The Role of the Single Incision Laparoscopic Approach in Liver and Pancreatic Resectional Surgery Mon, 07 Nov 2016 09:14:52 +0000 Introduction. Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) has gained increasing support over the last few years. The aim of this narrative review is to analyse the published evidence on the use and potential benefits of SILS in hepatic and pancreatic resectional surgery for benign and malignant pathology. Methods. Pubmed and Embase databases were searched using the search terms “single incision laparoscopic”, “single port laparoscopic”, “liver surgery”, and “pancreas surgery”. Results. Twenty relevant manuscripts for liver and 9 for pancreatic SILS resections were identified. With regard to liver surgery, despite the lack of comparative studies with other minimal invasive techniques, outcomes have been acceptable when certain limitations are taken into account. For pancreatic resections, when compared to the conventional laparoscopic approach, SILS produced comparable results with regard to intra- and postoperative parameters, including length of hospitalisation and complications. Similarly, the results were comparable to robotic pancreatectomies, with the exception of the longer operative time reported with the robotic approach. Discussion. Despite the limitations, the published evidence supports that SILS is safe and feasible for liver and pancreatic resections when performed by experienced teams in the tertiary setting. However, no substantial benefit has been identified yet, especially compared to other minimal invasive techniques. Nikolaos A. Chatzizacharias, Khaled Dajani, Jun Kit Koong, and Asif Jah Copyright © 2016 Nikolaos A. Chatzizacharias et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of a Standardized Technique for Laparoscopic Cuff Closure following 1924 Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomies Thu, 04 Aug 2016 11:14:57 +0000 Objective. To review the vaginal cuff complications from a large series of total laparoscopic hysterectomies in which the laparoscopic culdotomy closure was highly standardized. Methods. Retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force Classification II-3) of consecutive total and radical laparoscopic hysterectomy patients with all culdotomy closures performed laparoscopically was conducted using three guidelines: placement of all sutures 5 mm deep from the vaginal edge with a 5 mm interval, incorporation of the uterosacral ligaments with the pubocervical fascia at each angle, and, whenever possible, suturing the bladder peritoneum over the vaginal cuff edge utilizing two suture types of comparable tensile strength. Four outcomes are reviewed: dehiscence, bleeding, infection, and adhesions. Results. Of 1924 patients undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomy, 44 patients (2.29%) experienced a vaginal cuff complication, with 19 (0.99%) requiring reoperation. Five patients (0.26%) had dehiscence after sexual penetration on days 30–83, with 3 requiring reoperation. Thirteen patients (0.68%) developed bleeding, with 9 (0.47%) requiring reoperation. Twenty-three (1.20%) patients developed infections, with 4 (0.21%) requiring reoperation. Three patients (0.16%) developed obstructive small bowel adhesions to the cuff requiring laparoscopic lysis. Conclusion. A running 5 mm deep × 5 mm apart culdotomy closure that incorporates the uterosacral ligaments with the pubocervical fascia, with reperitonealization when possible, appears to be associated with few postoperative vaginal cuff complications. Katherine A. O’Hanlan, Pamela L. Emeney, Alfred Peters, Margaret S. Sten, Stacey P. McCutcheon, Danielle M. Struck, and Joseph K. Hoang Copyright © 2016 Katherine A. O’Hanlan et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Diaphragmatic Breathing Exercise, Volume and Flow Incentive Spirometry, on Diaphragm Excursion and Pulmonary Function in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial Thu, 21 Jul 2016 09:51:37 +0000 Objective. To evaluate the effects of diaphragmatic breathing exercises and flow and volume-oriented incentive spirometry on pulmonary function and diaphragm excursion in patients undergoing laparoscopic abdominal surgery. Methodology. We selected 260 patients posted for laparoscopic abdominal surgery and they were block randomization as follows: 65 patients performed diaphragmatic breathing exercises, 65 patients performed flow incentive spirometry, 65 patients performed volume incentive spirometry, and 65 patients participated as a control group. All of them underwent evaluation of pulmonary function with measurement of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in the first second (FEV1), Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR), and diaphragm excursion measurement by ultrasonography before the operation and on the first and second postoperative days. With the level of significance set at . Results. Pulmonary function and diaphragm excursion showed a significant decrease on the first postoperative day in all four groups () but was evident more in the control group than in the experimental groups. On the second postoperative day pulmonary function (Forced Vital Capacity) and diaphragm excursion were found to be better preserved in volume incentive spirometry and diaphragmatic breathing exercise group than in the flow incentive spirometry group and the control group. Pulmonary function (Forced Vital Capacity) and diaphragm excursion showed statistically significant differences between volume incentive spirometry and diaphragmatic breathing exercise group () as compared to that flow incentive spirometry group and the control group. Conclusion. Volume incentive spirometry and diaphragmatic breathing exercise can be recommended as an intervention for all patients pre- and postoperatively, over flow-oriented incentive spirometry for the generation and sustenance of pulmonary function and diaphragm excursion in the management of laparoscopic abdominal surgery. Gopala Krishna Alaparthi, Alfred Joseph Augustine, R. Anand, and Ajith Mahale Copyright © 2016 Gopala Krishna Alaparthi et al. All rights reserved. Redo Surgery after Failed Open VBG: Laparoscopic Minigastric Bypass versus Laparoscopic Roux en Y Gastric Bypass—Which Is Better? Sun, 29 May 2016 09:16:34 +0000 Background. Long-term studies have reported that the rate of conversion surgeries after open VBG ranged from 49.7 to 56%. This study is aiming to compare between LMGB and LRYGB as conversion surgeries after failed open VBG with respect to indications and operative and postoperative outcomes. Methods. Sixty patients (48 females and 12 males) presenting with failed VBG, with an average BMI of 39.7 kg/m2 ranging between 26.5 kg/m2 and 53 kg/m2, and a mean age of 38.7 ranging between 24 and 51 years were enrolled in this study. Operative and postoperative data was recorded up to one year after the operation. Results. MGB is a simple procedure that is associated with short operative time and low rate of complications. However, MGB may not be applicable in all cases with failed VBG and therefore RYGB may be needed in such cases. Conclusion. LMGB is a safe and feasible revisional bariatric surgery after failed VBG and can achieve early good weight loss results similar to that of LRYGP. However, the decision to convert to lap RYGB or MGB should be taken intraoperatively depending mainly on the actual intraoperative pouch length. Tamer M. S. Salama and Karim Sabry Copyright © 2016 Tamer M. S. Salama and Karim Sabry. All rights reserved. Prediction of Muscle Fatigue during Minimally Invasive Surgery Using Recurrence Quantification Analysis Tue, 24 May 2016 10:09:10 +0000 Due to its inherent complexity such as limited work volume and degree of freedom, minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is ergonomically challenging to surgeons compared to traditional open surgery. Specifically, MIS can expose performing surgeons to excessive ergonomic risks including muscle fatigue that may lead to critical errors in surgical procedures. Therefore, detecting the vulnerable muscles and time-to-fatigue during MIS is of great importance in order to prevent these errors. The main goal of this study is to propose and test a novel measure that can be efficiently used to detect muscle fatigue. In this study, surface electromyography was used to record muscle activations of five subjects while they performed fifteen various laparoscopic operations. The muscle activation data was then reconstructed using recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) to detect possible signs of muscle fatigue on eight muscle groups (bicep, triceps, deltoid, and trapezius). The results showed that RQA detects the fatigue sign on bilateral trapezius at 47.5 minutes (average) and bilateral deltoid at 57.5 minutes after the start of operations. No sign of fatigue was detected for bicep and triceps muscles of any subject. According to the results, the proposed novel measure can be efficiently used to detect muscle fatigue and eventually improve the quality of MIS procedures with reducing errors that may result from overlooked muscle fatigue. Ali Keshavarz Panahi and Sohyung Cho Copyright © 2016 Ali Keshavarz Panahi and Sohyung Cho. All rights reserved. Laparoscopic Cystectomy In-a-Bag of an Intact Cyst: Is It Feasible and Spillage-Free After All? Wed, 23 Mar 2016 12:02:03 +0000 This prospective study was conducted to assess the feasibility of laparoscopic cystectomy of an intact adnexal cyst performed inside a water proof endoscopic bag, aiming to avoid intraperitoneal spillage in case of cyst rupture. 102 patients were recruited. Two of them were pregnant. In 8 of the patients the lesions were bilateral, adding up to a total of 110 cysts involved in our study. The endoscopic sac did not rupture in any case. Mean diameter of the cysts was 5.7 cm (range: 2.3–10.5 cm). In 75/110 (68.2%) cases, cystectomy was completed without rupture, whereas in the remaining 35/110 (31.8%) cases the cyst ruptured. Minimal small spillage occurred despite every effort only in 8/110 (7.2%) cases with large (>8 cm) cystic teratomas. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. We concluded that laparoscopic cystectomy in-a-bag of an intact cyst is feasible and oncologically safe for cystic tumors with a diameter < 8 cm. Manipulation of larger tumors with the adnexa into the sac may be more difficult, and in such cases previous puncture and evacuation of the cyst contents should be considered. Stelios Detorakis, Dimitrios Vlachos, Stavros Athanasiou, Themistoklis Grigoriadis, Aikaterini Domali, Ioannis Chatzipapas, Emmanuel Stamatakis, Athanasios Mousiolis, Apostolos Patrikios, Aris Antsaklis, Dimitrios Loutradis, and Athanasios Protopapas Copyright © 2016 Stelios Detorakis et al. All rights reserved. Robot-Assisted Myomectomy for Large Uterine Myomas: A Single Center Experience Mon, 29 Feb 2016 08:02:03 +0000 Objective. To determine if robot-assisted myomectomy (RAM) is feasible for women with large uterine myomas. Methods. Retrospective review of one gynecologic surgeon’s RAM cases between May 2010 and July 2013. Large uterine myomas, defined as the largest myoma ≥9 cm by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging, was age- and time-matched to controls with the largest myoma <9 cm. Primary surgical outcomes compared were operative time and estimated blood loss (EBL). Results. 207 patients were included: 66 (32%) patients were in the ≥9 cm group, while 141 (68%) patients were in the <9 cm group. There was a statistically significant increase in the operative time (130 min versus 92 min) and EBL (100 mL versus 25 mL) for the ≥9 cm group compared to the <9 cm group. Ten (4.8%) patients had the largest myoma measuring ≥15 cm, and 11 (5.3%) patients had a specimen weight >900 gm, of which no major adverse outcomes were observed. All patients in the study cohort were discharged on the same day after surgery. Conclusion. RAM is a feasible surgical approach for patients with myomas ≥9 cm. Patients with large myomas undergoing RAM are also candidates for same-day discharge after surgery. Vinay Gunnala, Robert Setton, Nigel Pereira, and Jian Qun Huang Copyright © 2016 Vinay Gunnala et al. All rights reserved. A Comparative Study in Learning Curves of Two Different Intracorporeal Knot Tying Techniques Sun, 28 Feb 2016 16:18:29 +0000 Objectives. In our study we are aiming to analyse the learning curves in our surgical trainees by using two standard methods of intracorporeal knot tying. Material and Method. Two randomized groups of trainees are trained with two different intracorporeal knot tying techniques (loop and winding) by single surgeon for eight sessions. In each session participants were allowed to make as many numbers of knots in thirty minutes. The duration for each set of knots and the number of knots for each session were calculated. At the end each session, participants were asked about their frustration level, difficulty in making knot, and dexterity. Results. In winding method the number of knots tied was increasing significantly in each session with less frustration and less difficulty level. Discussion. The suturing and knotting skill improved in every session in both groups. But group B (winding method) trainees made significantly higher number of knots and they took less time for each set of knots than group A (loop method). Although both knotting methods are standard methods, the learning curve is better in loop method. Conclusion. The winding method of knotting is simpler and easier to perform, especially for the surgeons who have limited laparoscopic experience. Manuneethimaran Thiyagarajan and Chandru Ravindrakumar Copyright © 2016 Manuneethimaran Thiyagarajan and Chandru Ravindrakumar. All rights reserved. Comparing Single and Dual Console Systems in the Robotic Surgical Training of Graduating OB/GYN Residents in the United States Wed, 03 Feb 2016 10:05:32 +0000 Objective. To assess the impact of a single versus dual console robotic system on the perceptions of program directors (PD) and residents (RES) towards robotic surgical training among graduating obstetrics and gynecology residents. Design. An anonymous survey was developed using Qualtrics, a web-based survey development and administration system, and sent to obstetrics and gynecology program directors and graduating residents. Participants. 39 program directors and 32 graduating residents (PGY4). Results. According to residents perception, dual console is utilized in about 70% of the respondents’ programs. Dual console system programs were more likely to provide a robotics training certificate compared to single console programs (43.5% versus 0%, ). A greater proportion of residents graduating from a dual console program perform more than 20 robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomies, 30% versus 0% (). Conclusions. Utilization of dual console system increased the likelihood of obtaining robotic training certification without significantly increasing the case volume of robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy. Emad Mikhail, Jason L. Salemi, Stuart Hart, and Anthony N. Imudia Copyright © 2016 Emad Mikhail et al. All rights reserved. Association between Fellowship Training, Surgical Volume, and Laparoscopic Suturing Techniques among Members of the American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists Mon, 18 Jan 2016 09:12:23 +0000 Study Objective. To compare surgical volume and techniques including laparoscopic suturing among members of the American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists (AAGL) according to fellowship training status. Design. A web-based survey was designed using Qualtrics and sent to AAGL members. Results. Minimally invasive gynecologic surgery (FMIGS) trained surgeons were more likely to perform more than 8 major conventional laparoscopic cases per month (63% versus 38%, , OR [95% CI] = 2.78 [1.54–5.06]) and were more likely to perform laparoscopic suturing during these cases (32% versus 16%, , OR [95% CI] = 2.44 [1.25–4.71]). The non-fellowship trained (NFT) surgeons in private practice were less likely to perform over 8 conventional laparoscopic cases (34% versus 51%, , OR [95% CI] = 0.50 [0.25–0.99]) and laparoscopic suturing during these cases (13% versus 27%, , OR [95% CI] = 0.39 [0.17–0.92]) compared to NFT surgeons in academic practice. Conclusion. The surgical volume and utilization of laparoscopic suturing of FMIGS trained surgeons are significantly increased compared to NFT surgeons. Academic practice setting had a positive impact on surgical volume of NFT surgeons but not on FMIGS trained surgeons. Emad Mikhail, Lauren Scott, Branko Miladinovic, Anthony N. Imudia, and Stuart Hart Copyright © 2016 Emad Mikhail et al. All rights reserved. Relationship of Gallbladder Perforation and Bacteriobilia with Occurrence of Surgical Site Infections following Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Thu, 29 Oct 2015 12:29:31 +0000 Aim. To assess the occurrence of SSIs in patients with spillage of gallbladder contents and bacteriobilia during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. We evaluated 113 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy between September 2013 and April 2015. The SSIs and their relationship with gallbladder rupture and bacteriobilia were assessed. Results. The mean age of patients developing SSIs was 45.57 ± 8.89 years. 18 patients (16%) had spillage of bile from the gallbladder. Percentage of SSIs overall was 6%, while percentage of SSIs in gallbladder content spillage was 5.5%. Organism profile of the culture from surgical site showed monomicrobial infection: 58% Staphylococcus aureus, 14% Pseudomonas, and 14% E. coli. The occurrence of SSIs in patients with bacteriobilia was 16% as compared to 2% in patients without bacteriobilia. Conclusions. Gallbladder content spillage is not a significant risk factor leading to increase in SSIs. The occurrence of SSIs is significantly higher in patients with bacteriobilia. Nikhar Jain, Sushanto Neogi, Rajandeep Singh Bali, and Niket Harsh Copyright © 2015 Nikhar Jain et al. All rights reserved. The Application of Pediatric Ureteroscope for Seminal Vesiculoscopy Tue, 20 Oct 2015 11:07:22 +0000 To describe a novel technique of transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy using a pediatric ureteroscope in the diagnosis and management of persistent hematospermia, a retrospective study was carried out for 20 patients with recurrent hematospermia whom we evaluated and treated using a 6–7.5F (6F front end and 7.5F rear end) pediatric ureteroscope from August 2009 to September 2013. For the 20 patients, the age ranges from 25 to 48 years with a mean age of 36 years. The duration of the hematospermia ranges from 6 to 48 months with a mean duration of 18 months. Transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy was successfully performed in the 20 cases and the mean operative time was 35 min (ranges from 25 to 90 min). Among the 20 patients, 11 patients were found to have seminal vesiculitis, five were with seminal vesicle stone, one was with prostatic utricle stone, one was with prostate cyst, and one was with ejaculatory duct obstruction. The mean follow-up period was 7 months (ranged from 6 to 12 months). Hematospermia in 19 cases disappeared after the surgery and only in one patient the hematospermia recurred 6 months after the surgery. The cure rate was 95%. This study indicated that transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy could be performed easily using a semirigid pediatric ureteroscope with few complications and is an effective therapeutic approach for persistent hematospermia. Shulin Guo, Donghua Xie, Xiangfei He, Chuance Du, Lunfeng Zhu, Xiaolin Deng, and Zhongsheng Yang Copyright © 2015 Shulin Guo et al. All rights reserved. Single-Incision Single-Instrument Adnexal Surgery in Pediatric Patients Wed, 07 Oct 2015 07:49:11 +0000 Introduction. Pediatric surgeons often practice pediatric gynecology. The single-incision single-instrument (SISI) technique used for appendectomy is applicable in gynecologic surgery. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed the records of patients undergoing pelvic surgery from 2008 to 2013. SISI utilized a 12 mm transumbilical trocar and an operating endoscope. The adnexa can be detorsed intracorporeally or extracorporealized via the umbilicus for lesion removal. Results. We performed 271 ovarian or paraovarian surgeries in 258 patients. In 147 (54%), the initial approach was SISI; 75 cases (51%) were completed in patients aged from 1 day to 19.9 years and weighing 4.7 to 117 kg. Conversion to standard laparoscopy was due to contralateral oophoropexy, solid mass, inability to mobilize the adnexa, large mass, bleeding, adhesions, or better visualization. When SISI surgery was converted to Pfannenstiel, the principal reason was a solid mass. SISI surgery was significantly shorter than standard laparoscopy. There were no major complications and the overall cohort had an 11% minor complication rate. Conclusion. SISI adnexal surgery is safe, quick, inexpensive, and effective in pediatric patients. SISI was successful in over half the patients in whom it was attempted and offers a scarless result. If unsuccessful, the majority of cases can be completed with standard multiport laparoscopy. Tara Loux, Gavin A. Falk, Michaela Gaffley, Stephanie Ortega, Carmen Ramos, Leopoldo Malvezzi, Colin G. Knight, and Cathy Burnweit Copyright © 2015 Tara Loux et al. All rights reserved. How Predictable Is the Operative Time of Laparoscopic Surgery for Ovarian Endometrioma? Mon, 31 Aug 2015 08:21:44 +0000 Endometriosis is a tricky albeit common disease whose management largely relies on laparoscopy. We have studied the operative times of laparoscopic endometrioma surgery in order to assess their predictability and possible predictors. One hundred forty-eight laparoscopies were included, with a median operative time of 70 minutes (mean 75.14; 95% CI: 70.03–80.24). Half of the cases had a duration within 15–20 minutes above or below the median (IQR: 55–93.75), but the whole dataset ranged from 20 to 180 minutes, and the standard deviation was relatively large (31.4). Surgical times were significantly related to technical (number and size of the cysts) and nontechnical factors (age, parity, dysmenorrhea, and family history). At multiple logistic regression, after adjusting for number and size of the cysts, surgical times below the first quartile were associated with older age (>30 years old: aOR: 3.590; 95% CI: 1.417–9.091) and parity (≥1 delivery: aOR: 3.409; 95% CI: 1.343–8.651). Longer times, above the third quartile, were instead predicted by a familial anamnesis of endometriosis (aOR: 3.639; 95% CI: 1.246–10.627). Our findings indicate highly variable surgical times, which are predicted by unexpected nontechnical factors. This is consistent with the complexity of endometriosis and its treatment. Productivity and efficiency in endometriosis surgery should focus on the quality of healthcare outcomes rather than on the time spent in the operating theatres. Pietro Gambadauro, Vincenzo Campo, and Sebastiano Campo Copyright © 2015 Pietro Gambadauro et al. All rights reserved. Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery in Patients Who Previously Underwent Open Renal Stone Surgery Tue, 18 Aug 2015 13:34:37 +0000 Purpose. To ascertain whether retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) is as effective in patients treated previously with open renal stone surgery (ORSS) on the same kidney as in patients with no previous ORSS. Methods. There were 32 patients with renal stones who had previous ORSS and were treated with RIRS in the study group (Group 1). A total of 38 patients with renal stones who had no previous ORSS and were treated with RIRS were selected as the control group (Group 2). Recorded data regarding preoperative characteristics of the patients, stone properties, surgical parameters, outcomes, SFRs (no fragments or small fragments <4 mm), and complications between groups were compared. Results. Mean age, mean BMI, mean hospital stay, and mean operative time were not statistically different between groups. Mean stone size (10.1 ± 5.6 versus 10.3 ± 4.2; ) and mean stone burden (25.4 ± 14.7 versus 23.5 ± 9.9; ) were also similar between groups. After the second procedures, SFRs were 100% and 95% in groups 1 and 2, respectively . No major perioperative complications were seen. Conclusion. RIRS can be safely and effectively performed with acceptable complication rates in patients treated previously with ORSS as in patients with no previous ORSS. Erdal Alkan, Ali Saribacak, Ahmet Oguz Ozkanli, Mehmet Murad Başar, Oguz Acar, and Mevlana Derya Balbay Copyright © 2015 Erdal Alkan et al. All rights reserved. Tactile Electrosurgical Ablation: A Technique for the Treatment of Intractable Heavy and Prolonged Menstrual Bleeding Thu, 30 Jul 2015 12:37:35 +0000 Objective. To study the efficacy and safety of tactile electrosurgical ablation (TEA) in stopping a persistent attack of abnormal uterine bleeding not responding to medical and hormonal therapy. Methods. This is a case series of 19 cases with intractable abnormal uterine bleeding, who underwent TEA at the Women’s Health Center of Assiut University. The outcomes measured were; patient’s acceptability, operative time, complications, menstrual outcomes, and reintervention. Results. None of the 19 counseled cases refused the TEA procedure which took 6–10 minutes without intraoperative complications. The procedure was successful in the immediate cessation of bleeding in 18 out of 19 cases. During the 24-month follow-up period, 9 cases developed amenorrhea, 5 had scanty menstrual bleeding, 3 were regularly menstruating, 1 case underwent repeat TEA ablation, and one underwent a hysterectomy. Conclusions. TEA represents a safe, inexpensive, and successful method for management of uterine bleeding emergencies with additional long-term beneficial effects. However, more studies with more cases and longer follow-up periods are warranted. Ali M. El Saman, Faten F. AbdelHafez, Kamal M. Zahran, Hazem Saad, Mohamed Khalaf, Mostafa Hussein, Ibrahim M. A. Hassanin, and Saba M. Shugaa Al Deen Copyright © 2015 Ali M. El Saman et al. All rights reserved. The Role of VATS in Lung Cancer Surgery: Current Status and Prospects for Development Wed, 29 Jul 2015 09:09:41 +0000 Since the introduction of anatomic lung resection by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) 20 years ago, VATS has experienced major advances in both equipment and technique, introducing a technical challenge in the surgical treatment of both benign and malignant lung disease. The demonstrated safety, decreased morbidity, and equivalent efficacy of this minimally invasive technique have led to the acceptance of VATS as a standard surgical modality for early-stage lung cancer and increasing application to more advanced disease. Formerly there was much debate about the feasibility of the technique in cancer surgery and proper lymph node handling. Although there is a lack of proper randomized studies, it is now generally accepted that the outcome of a VATS procedure is at least not inferior to a resection via a traditional thoracotomy. Dariusz Dziedzic and Tadeusz Orlowski Copyright © 2015 Dariusz Dziedzic and Tadeusz Orlowski. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Transvaginal Appendectomy: A Systematic Review” Sun, 28 Jun 2015 14:23:56 +0000 Cuneyt Kayaalp, Kerem Tolan, and Mehmet Ali Yagci Copyright © 2015 Cuneyt Kayaalp et al. All rights reserved. Early Experience in Da Vinci Robot-Assisted Partial Nephrectomy: An Australian Single Centre Series Mon, 08 Jun 2015 13:22:29 +0000 Introduction and Objectives. To demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) technique in an Australian setting. Methods. Between November 2010 and July 2014, a total of 76 patients underwent 77 RAPN procedures using the Da Vinci Surgical System© at our institution. 58 of these procedures were performed primarily by the senior author (PB) and are described in this case series. Results. Median operative time was 4 hours (range 1.5–6) and median warm ischaemic time (WIT) was 8 minutes (range 0–30) including 11 cases with zero ischaemic time. All surgical margins were clear with the exception of one patient who had egress of intravascular microscopic tumour outside the capsule to the point of the resection margin. Complications were identified in 9 patients (15.8%). Major complications included conversion to open surgery due to significant venous bleeding (), reperfusion injury (), gluteal compartment syndrome (), DVT/PE (), and readmission for haematuria (). Conclusion. This series demonstrates the safety and efficacy of the RAPN technique in an Australian setting when performed by experienced laparoscopic surgeons in a dedicated high volume robotic centre. Francis Ting, Richard Savdie, Sam Chopra, Carlo Yuen, and Phillip Brenner Copyright © 2015 Francis Ting et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Effectiveness of Modified Laparoscopic Fimbrioplasty for the Treatment of Minimal Endometriosis and Unexplained Infertility Wed, 06 May 2015 10:28:41 +0000 Objective. To study the reproductive outcomes of modified laparoscopic fimbrioplasty (MLF), a surgical technique designed to increase the working surface area of the fimbriated end of the fallopian tube. We postulated that an improvement in fimbrial function through MLF will improve reproductive outcomes. Design. Retrospective cohort study. Setting. Academic tertiary-care medical center. Patients. Women with minimal endometriosis or unexplained infertility, who underwent MLF during diagnostic laparoscopy () or diagnostic laparoscopy alone (). Intervention. MLF involved gentle, circumferential dilatation of the fimbria and lysis of fimbrial adhesions bridging the fimbrial folds. Main Outcome Measures. The primary outcome was pregnancy rate and the secondary outcome was time to pregnancy. Results. The pregnancy rate for the MLF group was 40.0%, compared to 28.7% for the control group. The average time to pregnancy for the MLF group was 13 weeks, compared to 18 weeks for the control group. The pregnancy rate in the MLF group was significantly higher for patients ≤35 ys (51.5% versus 28.8%), but not for those >35 ys (17.6% versus 28.6%). Conclusion. MLF was associated with a significant increase in pregnancy rate for patients ≤35 ys. Sarah E. Franjoine, Mohamed A. Bedaiwy, Faten F. AbdelHafez, Cuiyu Geng, and James H. Liu Copyright © 2015 Sarah E. Franjoine et al. All rights reserved. Stability Outcomes following Computer-Assisted ACL Reconstruction Thu, 26 Mar 2015 12:57:54 +0000 Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine whether intraoperative prereconstruction stability measurements and/or patient characteristics were associated with final knee stability after computer-assisted ACL reconstruction. Methods. This was a retrospective review of all patients who underwent computer-assisted single-bundle ACL reconstruction by a single surgeon. Prereconstruction intraoperative stability measurements were correlated with patient characteristics and postreconstruction stability measurements. 143 patients were included (87 male and 56 female). Average age was 29.8 years (SD ± 11.8). Results. Females were found to have significantly more pre- and postreconstruction internal rotation than males (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, resp.). Patients with additional intra-articular injuries demonstrated more prereconstruction anterior instability than patients with isolated ACL tears (P < 0.001). After reconstruction, these patients also had higher residual anterior translation (P = 0.01). Among all patients with ACL reconstructions, the percent of correction of anterior translation was found to be significantly higher than the percent of correction for internal or external rotation (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Anterior translation was corrected the most using a single-bundle ACL reconstruction. Females had higher pre- and postoperative internal rotation. Patients with additional injuries had greater original anterior translation and less operative correction of anterior translation compared to patients with isolated ACL tears. Melissa A. Christino, Bryan G. Vopat, Alexander Mayer, Andrew P. Matson, Steven E. Reinert, and Robert M. Shalvoy Copyright © 2015 Melissa A. Christino et al. All rights reserved. Two Ports Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair in Children Mon, 16 Feb 2015 09:30:32 +0000 Introduction. Several laparoscopic treatment techniques were designed for improving the outcome over the last decade. The various techniques differ in their approach to the inguinal internal ring, suturing and knotting techniques, number of ports used in the procedures, and mode of dissection of the hernia sac. Patients and Surgical Technique. 90 children were subjected to surgery and they undergone two-port laparoscopic repair of inguinal hernia in children. Technique feasibility in relation to other modalities of repair was the aim of this work. 90 children including 75 males and 15 females underwent surgery. Hernia in 55 cases was right-sided and in 15 left-sided. Two patients had recurrent hernia following open hernia repair. 70 (77.7%) cases were suffering unilateral hernia and 20 (22.2%) patients had bilateral hernia. Out of the 20 cases 5 cases were diagnosed by laparoscope (25%). The patients’ median age was 18 months. The mean operative time for unilateral repairs was 15 to 20 minutes and bilateral was 21 to 30 minutes. There was no conversion. The complications were as follows: one case was recurrent right inguinal hernia and the second was stitch sinus. Discussion. The results confirm the safety and efficacy of two ports laparoscopic hernia repair in congenital inguinal hernia in relation to other modalities of treatment. Medhat M. Ibrahim Copyright © 2015 Medhat M. Ibrahim. All rights reserved. Laparoscopic Watson Fundoplication Is Effective and Durable in Children with Gastrooesophageal Reflux Wed, 31 Dec 2014 11:29:50 +0000 Gastroesophageal reflux (GOR) affects 2–8% of children over 3 years of age and is associated with significant morbidity. The disorder is particularly critical in neurologically impaired children, who have a high risk of aspiration. Traditionally, the surgical antireflux procedure of choice has been Nissen’s operation. However, this technique has a significant incidence of mechanical complications and has a reoperation rate of approximately 7%, leading to the development of alternative approaches. Watson’s technique of partial anterior fundoplication has been shown to achieve long-lasting reflux control in adults with few mechanical complications, but there is limited data in the paediatric population. We present here short- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic Watson fundoplication in a series of 76 children and infants, 34% of whom had a degree of neurological impairment including severe cerebral palsy and hypoxic brain injury. The overall complication rate was 27.6%, of which only 1 was classified as major. To date, we have not recorded any incidences of perforation and no revisions. In our experience, Watson’s laparoscopic partial fundoplication can be performed with minimal complications and with durable results, not least in neurologically compromised children, making it a viable alternative to the Nissen procedure in paediatric surgery. Matthew G. Dunckley, Kapil M. Rajwani, and Anies A. Mahomed Copyright © 2014 Matthew G. Dunckley et al. All rights reserved. Transvaginal Appendectomy: A Systematic Review Mon, 29 Dec 2014 00:10:18 +0000 Background. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is a new approach that allows minimal invasive surgery through the mouth, anus, or vagina. Objective. To summarize the recent clinical appraisal, feasibility, complications, and limitations of transvaginal appendectomy for humans and outline the techniques. Data Sources. PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane, Google-Scholar, EBSCO, and congress abstracts, were searched. Study Selection. All related reports were included, irrespective of age, region, race, obesity, comorbidities or history of previous surgery. No restrictions were made in terms of language, country or journal. Main Outcome Measures. Patient selection criteria, surgical techniques, and results. Results. There were total 112 transvaginal appendectomies. All the selected patients had uncomplicated appendicitis and there were no morbidly obese patients. There was no standard surgical technique for transvaginal appendectomy. Mean operating time was 53.3 minutes (25–130 minutes). Conversion and complication rates were 3.6% and 8.2%, respectively. Mean length of hospital stay was 1.9 days. Limitations. There are a limited number of comparative studies and an absence of randomized studies. Conclusions. For now, nonmorbidly obese females with noncomplicated appendicitis can be a candidate for transvaginal appendectomy. It may decrease postoperative pain and enable the return to normal life and work off time. More comparative studies including subgroups are necessary. Mehmet Ali Yagci and Cuneyt Kayaalp Copyright © 2014 Mehmet Ali Yagci and Cuneyt Kayaalp. All rights reserved. Antimullerian Hormone Changes after Laparoscopic Ovarian Cystectomy for Endometrioma Compared with the Nonovarian Conditions Sun, 14 Dec 2014 12:14:19 +0000 Laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy is recommended for surgical procedure of endometrioma. The negative impact on ovarian reserve following removal had been documented. Little evidence had been reported for nonovarian originated effects. Objective. To evaluate the impact of laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy for endometrioma on ovarian reserve, measured by serum antimullerian hormone (AMH), compared to nonovarian pelvic surgery. Materials and Methods. A prospective study was conducted. Women who underwent laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy (LOC) and laparoscopic nonovarian pelvic surgery (NOS) were recruited and followed up through 6 months. Clinical baseline data and AMH were evaluated. Results. 39 and 38 participants were enrolled in LOC and NOS groups, respectively. Baseline characteristics (age, weight, BMI, and height) and preoperative AMH level between 2 groups were not statistically different. After surgery, AMH of both groups decreased since the first week, at 1 month and at 3 months. However, as compared to the LOC group at 6 months after operation, the mean AMH of the NOS group had regained its value with a highly significant difference. Conclusion. This study demonstrated the negative impact of nonovarian or indirect effects of laparoscopic surgery to ovarian reserve. The possible mechanisms are necessary for more investigations. Chamnan Tanprasertkul, Sakol Manusook, Charintip Somprasit, Sophapun Ekarattanawong, Opas Sreshthaputra, and Teraporn Vutyavanich Copyright © 2014 Chamnan Tanprasertkul et al. All rights reserved.