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Mobile Information Systems
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 438159, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/438159
Review Article

Doppler Shift Compensation Schemes in VANETs

Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001, South Africa

Received 29 April 2015; Revised 30 July 2015; Accepted 6 August 2015

Academic Editor: Francesco Gringoli

Copyright © 2015 F. Nyongesa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Over the last decade vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication has received a lot of attention as it is a crucial issue in intravehicle communication as well as in Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). In ITS the focus is placed on integration of communication between mobile and fixed infrastructure to execute road safety as well as nonsafety information dissemination. The safety application such as emergence alerts lays emphasis on low-latency packet delivery rate (PDR), whereas multimedia and infotainment call for high data rates at low bit error rate (BER). The nonsafety information includes multimedia streaming for traffic information and infotainment applications such as playing audio content, utilizing navigation for driving, and accessing Internet. A lot of vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) research has focused on specific areas including channel multiplexing, antenna diversity, and Doppler shift compensation schemes in an attempt to optimize BER performance. Despite this effort few surveys have been conducted to highlight the state-of-the-art collection on Doppler shift compensation schemes. Driven by this cause we survey some of the recent research activities in Doppler shift compensation schemes and highlight challenges and solutions as a stock-taking exercise. Moreover, we present open issues to be further investigated in order to address the challenges of Doppler shift in VANETs.