Table 1: Parameter settings in the simulations.

Parameter Value

Roadmaps Madrid, Beijing, Prague, Amsterdam, Valencia, and San Francisco
Number of vehicles 100–1000
Roadmap size 2000 m × 2000 m
Warning message size 256B
Beacon message size 512B
Warning messages priority AC3
Beacon priority AC1
Interval between messages 1 second
MAC/PHY 802.11p
Radio propagation model RAV [24]
Mobility model Krauss et al. [29]
Channel bandwidth 6 Mbps
Max. transmission range 400 m