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Mobile Information Systems
Volume 2016, Article ID 9595306, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9595306
Research Article

Measuring the Uncertainty of Probabilistic Maps Representing Human Motion for Indoor Navigation

German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute for Communications and Navigation, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany

Received 17 February 2016; Accepted 7 August 2016

Academic Editor: Yuwei Chen

Copyright © 2016 Susanna Kaiser et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Indoor navigation and mapping have recently become an important field of interest for researchers because global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) are very often unavailable inside buildings. FootSLAM, a SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) algorithm for pedestrians based on step measurements, addresses the indoor mapping and positioning problem and can provide accurate positioning in many structured indoor environments. In this paper, we investigate how to compare FootSLAM maps via two entropy metrics. Since collaborative FootSLAM requires the alignment and combination of several individual FootSLAM maps, we also investigate measures that help to align maps that partially overlap. We distinguish between the map entropy conditioned on the sequence of pedestrian’s poses, which is a measure of the uncertainty of the estimated map, and the entropy rate of the pedestrian’s steps conditioned on the history of poses and conditioned on the estimated map. Because FootSLAM maps are built on a hexagon grid, the entropy and relative entropy metrics are derived for the special case of hexagonal transition maps. The entropy gives us a new insight on the performance of FootSLAM’s map estimation process.