User Association and Small-Cell Base Station On/Off Strategies for Energy Efficiency of Ultradense Networks

Algorithm 1

MAX-SINR algorithm.

(1)

Users associate with BSs based on SINR

(2)

Initialization:

(3)

;;

(4)

for 1 ≤ m ≤ M do

(5)

if

(6)

Associate user k with the BS m;

(7)

Generate the candidate list for BS m;

(8)

end if

(9)

for

(10)

Calculate the degrees of freedom of user k;

(11)

Find user k which has minimal degrees of freedom, ;

(12)

Calculate ,;

(13)

;

(14)

Associates user with BS ,;

(15)

Update ;

(16)

if

(17)

User k (1 ≤ k ≤ K) deletes the BS in its list ;

(18)

end if

(19)

end for

(20)

end for

(21)

until all users associate with BSs.

(22)

SBSs on/off strategy:

(23)

Initialization:

(24)

All BSs hold “on”, i.e., ;;

(25)

Sort ;

(26)

repeat

(27)

Turn off FBSs i based on the load of FBSs;

(28)

Update the EE by the user association algorithm, set , and record the number of FBSs turned off is n;

(29)

until

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