User Association and Small-Cell Base Station On/Off Strategies for Energy Efficiency of Ultradense Networks
Users associate with BSs based on SINR
for 1 ≤ m ≤ M do
Associate user k with the BS m;
Generate the candidate list for BS m;
Calculate the degrees of freedom of user k;
Find user k which has minimal degrees of freedom, ;
Associates user with BS ,;
User k (1 ≤ k ≤ K) deletes the BS in its list ;
until all users associate with BSs.
SBSs on/off strategy:
All BSs hold “on”, i.e., ;;
Turn off FBSs i based on the load of FBSs;
Update the EE by the user association algorithm, set , and record the number of FBSs turned off is n;
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