User Association and Small-Cell Base Station On/Off Strategies for Energy Efficiency of Ultradense Networks

Algorithm 3

User association strategy algorithm.

(1)

Initialization:

(2)

;;

(3)

for 1 ≤ k ≤ K do

(4)

if and

(5)

Associate user k with the MBS;

(6)

end if

(7)

end for

(8)

for 1 ≤ i ≤ M do

(9)

Generate the candidate list for BS i;

(10)

for

(11)

Calculate the degrees of freedom of user k;

(12)

Find user k which has minimal degrees of freedom, ;

(13)

Calculate ,;

(14)

;

(15)

Associates user with BS ,;

(16)

Update ;

(17)

if

(18)

User k (1 ≤ k ≤ K) deletes the BS in its list ;

(19)

end if

(20)

end for

(21)

end for

(22)

until all users associate with BSs.

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