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[Retracted] Psychological Factors in Training of Basketball Players to Improve Their Shooting Accuracy
The study reveals that technical movements, training level, and physical quality of current athletes have become more and more similar. The game performance of the same level of athletes is very different. One of the most important reasons is psychological quality. The purpose of studying the psychological factors affecting shooting accuracy in basketball games is to improve the shooting accuracy of the player. By using literature, observation, and interview methods, some psychological factors such as emotion, self-confidence, attention, and the mental quality of the players are discussed. This study aims to provide some references for effectively improving the shooting performance of basketball players in the game. Analyzing these psychological factors shows that the victory or defeat of the game depends on the technical and tactical level of the players and it also depends on whether the player can overcome the influence of various psychological factors. Therefore, by training and motivation, the player will not lose confidence. By using systematic and scientific training methods, focusing on body training and psyche, the psychological barriers of athletes will effectively be overcome. It will also allow them to maintain and improve their shooting hit rate. Finally, using the existing approaches, the proposed study uses data mining and inferences to evaluate the psychological factors that affect the training of basketball players to enable them to improve their shooting accuracy.
Basketball is a competitive sport that is performed at a high altitude. Basketball is one of the most popular and widely played sports in the world. In basketball, a game is won or lost by the result of scoring, a rule provision that makes shooting percentage a decisive factor in winning or losing the game . However, many reasons affect shooting accuracy, among which psychological factors are the most important factor. To enhance the shooting accuracy and win the game, it is important to analyze and research the psychological factors that influence it . The modern basketball game is not only a competition to test both players in terms of physical quality, technique, and tactics but also a competition of mental quality and willpower [3, 4]. Basketball has seen a significant transformation in the twenty-first century. Players frequently enter the kill zone in the last seconds of the game. The commentator also praises the player who scores the kill as a “big heart.” This not only emphasizes the mental qualities of player above and beyond the usual [5, 6], but also their technical ability will praise the players. Similarly, in the game, the psychological quality of the player not only affects his or her technical and tactical abilities but, most importantly, affects the shooting performance which will determine the direction of the game .
The shooting accuracy of a player may also be affected by the hand with which they dribble and the side from which they receive the ball. Before a shot, when a right-handed player dribbles with the right hand or receives a pass from the right side, the shooting side and arm alignment may differ from when the player dribbles with the left hand or receives the ball from the left side. When a right-handed dribble or pass is made, the ball is already on the shooting side of the body. The ball must be passed from the left to the right side of the body before the shot may be attempted while dribbling or passing from the left side of the body. This is because the side of the preceding action may be an important feature of shooting.
Additionally, there are many other factors that affect the shooting accuracy of players. It not only depends on the physical quality and technical level of the athletes but also depends on the emotion of athletes, self-confidence, willpower, psychological tolerance, motivation level, the influence of the audience, influence of referee, improper analysis, inadequate preparation, improper analysis of strength, the effect of poor preparation of player, the influence of in-game and off-game factors, and other psychological factors [8–10] that have a great effect on the shooting accuracy of the player. Improving the shooting accuracy can be done by improving the shooting ability of athletes; polishing their shooting technique; enhancing their shooting psychological training; improving their psychological reaction during the game, mutual encouragement, and proper analysis; and fully mastering the shooting technique [11, 12]. The training can be carried out by improving their physical ability, self-confidence, motivation level, mental capacity to adapt to the game, mastering their shooting technique, response time throughout the game, and practicing the essential shooting skills .
The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 explains the overview of different factors that affect the player psychologically and also affect the shooting rate. Section 3 elaborates a proposed method to overcome all those factors that affect the player. They mainly contain motivational training and technical training. Section 4 describes the analysis and experiment discussed in the proposed work. Finally, Section 5 is written about conclusion of the paper.
2. Overview of Factors Affecting Shooting Accuracy
In the game, the athletes will have a certain psychological burden due to the negative influence of various aspects [14, 15]. Shooting causes flaws as a result of technical action, making the whole shooting technical action debt hard and uncoordinated. Not getting the ideal angle, direction, power, curvature, and ball rotation of the shot reduces the shooting hit rate in the game . Training the players can improve the ability to resist external interference. Similarly, their psychological quality is also an important psychological factor necessary in shooting technique training. Therefore, shooting training should start by improving the psychological quality of athletes [17, 18].
2.1. The Influence of Athletes’ Emotions while Shooting
“Emotion is a constantly changing reflection of the external expression of a human. The emotional experience can constitute the usual psychological background or mental state, and information processing serves an organizational and coordination role. It helps a person to choose information and environment that are appropriate for them as well as drive behavior to alter the environment” . Therefore, the players should be good at overcoming all kinds of negative psychological factors, maintain positive psychological factors, moderate tension, have stable emotions, be full of confidence, focus on the game, not be discouraged in case of strength, not be proud in case of weakness, train to control all kinds of mental pressure, increase a variety of difficult shooting practices, and exercise the will of the athletes. This will help enhance the hitting rate by playing at the best technical and tactical level in the game.
Basketball is a sport that affects the emotional experience more profoundly. During the competition, the whole body and mind of the athletes are in a state of tension, with the fierce confrontation in the course of the game while the game constantly changing with every move of the player. The coaches and spectators have different perspectives on the game. The technical play of athletes, especially the influence on the shooting is rather large. It is easy to notice in practice and games that a player who normally shoots well is quite precise while shooting downwind, but misses frequently when shooting against the wind . Therefore, the emotional changes of the players during the game might have an impact on their shooting percentage.
2.2. The Influence of Coaches on Players’ Emotions
The role of coaches in basketball games is like a commander on the battlefield, helping players to judge various situations correctly in the game and make different tactics according to different opponents. Therefore, every word of coaches will have an emotional impact on the players. During the game, coaches need to calmly observe the situation on the field and the competitive state or emotional fluctuations of their players and make reasonable adjustments and guidance. When a player makes a mistake on the field, the inappropriate word of the coach will always put psychological pressure and burden on the player, making him or her move stiffly, hesitate, and not dare to take a shot or take a shot reluctantly in the game. This leads to a low hitting rate. When the player is behind in the game or does not shoot, the coaches should encourage the players to eliminate the psychological pressure and burden, adjust their emotions, and use the technical actions reasonably to improve the hitting rate.
2.3. The Influence of Mutual Encouragement among Players
As we all know, basketball is a game that emphasizes collective cooperation. The players need to unite and encourage each other in the game and rely on tacit cooperation to overcome the opponent. In a fierce game, when players miss a shot, their emotions will fluctuate. If they are not well adjusted, it will also have a negative impact on the emotions of the player.
2.4. The Influence of Audience on Players’ Emotions
Basketball has grown rapidly in the twenty-first century, with an increasing number of fans. Each fan has his own favorite team and players. Whenever the fans watch the game, they cheer and encourage the home team players when they are attacking and defending. So, that they can have more stable emotions and confidence to shoot the ball. The visiting players, on the other hand, are booed and attempt to disrupt their emotions. This aggravates the psychological burden when they miss any shots. Similarly, muscle tension, stiff shooting action, or even deformation can also occur which will result in decreasing the hitting rate . In the Chinese men’s basketball league, Shanxi’s home court is known as the Devil’s home court, where there are fanatical fans and the crowd’s chanting is often deafening. After the game, many visiting teams say they never want to come to this game again.
2.5. The Influence of Athletes’ Self-Confidence on Shooting Percentage
One of the conditions for playing sports is self-confidence. The first step to building shooting self-confidence is to learn the basic techniques because confidence depends on the training level of the athlete. The more skilled the technique is, the stronger the self-confidence will be, and the higher the hitting rate will be. In the critical moments of the game, excluding all distractions, focusing, and shooting with confidence will improve the hitting rate. Especially, in the case of a trailing score, you should see your favorable conditions, be not proud of the victory, and not discourage defeat, while being full of confidence is the key to the final victory.
2.6. The Impact of Improper Analysis of the Strength Gap between the Two Sides before the Game on Self-Confidence
“Know yourself and your opponent, and you will never lose a hundred battles,” this phrase is very appropriate to apply in modern basketball games. If we want to win a basketball game, first of all, we must make a correct assessment of our own strength and the adversary strength, understand the characteristics and shortcomings of the opponent, and develop good and appropriate tactics to win the game in order to build a good self-confidence. In the game, overestimating opponent strength will make the confidence of athletes overinflated and grasp the timing of shooting badly. Especially, despising the situation of opponents when the score is behind leads to impatience and low shooting accuracy. It will result in losing the game. The 2011–2012 finals of the Chinese Men’s Professional Basketball League were held between Beijing GTC and Guangdong Dongguan Bank. Guangdong was the seventh champion of the league, while Beijing was the first time to enter the finals. Beijing team relied on the excellent play of the whole team and won the first championship in the team’s history with 4 : 1. Therefore, estimating the strength of two teams too high or too low before a game will affect the self-confidence. It will affect shooting accuracy and possibly result in losing the game.
2.7. The Impact of Inadequate Preparation of Players’ Mind before the Match on Self-Confidence
The prematch mental state is a comprehensive reflection of the “body” and “mind” of the upcoming match. The coaches should not only adjust the physical condition and athletic ability, make reasonable tactics, and adapt to the venue in advance before the game, but it also prepares the mind of athletes because the psychological state before the game will directly affect the psychological state of the athletes in the game. In 2004, Athens Olympic Games opening game was between Puerto Rico and the United States Dream Team 6. Dream Team 6 was full of stars like Duncan, Iverson, Marbury, James, etc. They also felt that taking the game is a matter of course, so the pregame ideological preparation is not enough. In the game, Puerto Rico completely control the game that resulted in the victory [92 : 73] over the Dream Team 6. Therefore, reasonable pregame analysis on various conditions and difficulties may arise in the game. The athletes must have an ideological preparation before the game, to establish the spirit of competition to fight, so that in the game the player can give a comfortable response. If the mental preparation before the game is not sufficient, the athletes will be nervous; have shortness of breath, rapid heartbeat, trembling limbs, and restlessness; and will be plagued by fear, anxiety, irritability, restlessness, and other negative states that can affect the player psychologically. It will result in affecting the shooting stability of the athletes, resulting in a low hit rate.
2.8. The Effect of Lack of Game Experience on Self-Confidence
In many games, the gaming experience is earned over time rather than being natural. Tension is a stress while excitement is the reflection of body functions and nerves to external stimuli. It is the protective instinct of the organism to deal with a variety of stimuli. When some inexperienced athletes encounter a major game, they are always frightened, hesitant to shoot the ball, have slow action, and hesitate when the opportunity occurs. Even if they make the shot, their action is stiff and deformed. So, the usual training cannot play the shooting level thus reducing the hit rate. Due to a lack of knowledge in the game, the player cannot accurately determine whether the defense of opponent is in place. When the opportunity to shoot occurs, the defense is in place and reluctant to shoot, a few rounds down the psychological burden increased, and the shooting accuracy will be greatly reduced. Therefore, to solve this problem, let the athletes participate in more games in order to enhance the shooting performance in the game and improve game experience and mental agility in the face of severe competition. The effect of lack of game experience on self-confidence is divided into two major categories.
2.8.1. Low Self-Confidence
Self-confidence is a subjective judgment of one’s own ability and possible goals before engaging in a certain activity. The self-confidence of athletes is also a conviction and determination of his or her competence. In basketball games, a lack of self-confidence will affect the technical and tactical level of play of athletes. Even though the players give equal importance to the game, but in case of a mistake, blaming themselves for a missed shot, being intimidated by failure, and losing confidence result in hesitation in shooting, thus losing the timing of the shot. Even in a good shooting time shot, there will be all kinds of mistakes, game after game. The only thing you experience after a game is anxiety, failure, and helplessness of shooting. This is mainly due to their lack of confidence in their technical ability in the game, overestimation of the strength of the power of the opponent, and unwillingness to fight back with the opponent. As a consequence, during the game, there is a deformation of the hand shape and slow reaction during the game. It results in affecting the shooting hit rate.
In a basketball game, confident athletes will acquire a range of shooting techniques while undertaking their respective subjective initiative, shooting shots fast, and decisively solving problems. Such players have better skills, usually outstanding results, too high expectations of the game, and no mental preparation for mistakes, and they think that as long as their team played well, they will win. But if they show great strength, a desire to shoot and self-confidence increases. Failure is not an option for such a sportsman. Once encountering frustration, emotions are easily excited, and some even lose their temper and get out of control. In the game, the more impatient you are, the more you cannot throw, thus forming a vicious circle. Step by step towards failure will ultimately affect the performance of the whole team or even lead to defeat. Therefore, usual training should be with more care, help, encouragement, and praise. More training athletes in the game field encounter problems. Solve a problem in the game, face challenges without panicking, calm down, be adaptable, control emotions, and have the best state for completing the shooting action will help improve the shooting hit rate in the game.
2.9. The Effect of Athletes’ Attention on Shooting Percentage
“Attention is the direction and concentration of people’s psychomotor to certain objects” . The ability to concentrate in the game is a crucial psychological factor in completing the shooting action. A high level of concentration can boost the mental activity of players. Basketball is a high-speed, high-intensity sport with a lot of confrontation. Shooting is frequently done by athletes after a lot of physical exertion. When the athletes are fatigued, they will show lack of concentration, muscular flexibility, coordination, and other characteristics. In addition, the athletes frequently face the effects of numerous field interferences, such as the unadaptable game site conditions, missed call of the referee, opposing team’s rudeness, unethical behavior, audience's cheers, coaxing, and score of the leading and trailing which may affect the player mental stability and attention. In such cases, if the athlete is not focused when shooting, the action-reaction will be slow, making it possible for a missed shot or the opponent’s “cap” lowering the shooting hit rate. An important lesson is taken from this; my school challenged the District Vocational Technical School in the semifinal of the Gaoming District Boys’ Basketball Tournament, and because of a dispute with the decision of the referee, I lost concentration. It caused my shooting percentage to drop greatly and eventually lose the game by one point. As a consequence, coaches must actively incorporate numerous barriers into routine training, apply diverse mental pressure, and raise the difficulty level of various shooting trainings so that athletes can focus on the game; put aside all external interference; make eyes, hands, balls, and circles one; shoot forcefully; perform technical movements; have normal shooting levels; and improve the shooting hit rate.
In basketball, concentration is very important. In the game, the noise of the audience, the score ahead and behind the athletes, the mistakes and misjudgments of the referee, the venue equipment, and the emotions of athletes can affect the concentration of attention. In the game, it is necessary not only to observe the dynamics of the opponent and have insight into the opponent’s tactics but also to organize their strength and play up to their potential. All of these are inseparable from a good state of attention. However, if you do not concentrate on the object of your attention, your will miss numerous opportunities to shoot. Players with good concentration are generally not disturbed by the noise of the audience; they will have no stage fright and will be comfortable at shooting, while players with poor focus are prone to stage fright in key games. When shooting is not decisive, it results in action deformation and lowers hit rate. For this reason, concentration has a great impact on the shooting percentage.
2.10. The Influence of In-Game Factors on Attention
The modern basketball game offensive and defensive confrontation has seen a significant rise in speed, height, power, precision, talent, and mental condition. By concentrating, the player can get the fastest reaction time and gain the initiative for defense and offense. During the game, the situation on the court is changing rapidly and the attention of player is shifting quite frequently. Various conditions can affect the players’ attention, including a missed or miscalled call by the referee. The player will constantly recall the call in their mind and will be unable to concentrate on the game. The process of shooting is a process that requires a high degree of concentration. Because of the more aggressive style of modern basketball defense, players must focus on watching the position and movement of defender and selecting an appropriate moment to take the shot. The fear of being capped in the face of defense will divert the attention of player. It often produces the psychology of gambling, getting into the tangle of singles with the opposing defender. The player often in pursuit of the speed of the shot cannot focus on the use of shooting techniques. Thus, the chances of hitting will naturally decline.
2.11. The Influence of Off-Court Factors on Attention
In basketball games, the language or behavior of off-court spectators often affects the concentration of players in the game. To distract the attention of the free-throw players in CBA and NBA games, the crowd behind the basketball rack will create all kinds of boos, wear weird outfits, perform all kinds of strange gestures, and even hold all kinds of hilarious photos and banners, causing them to miss the shot. This strategy may sometimes be effective for players with low mental acuity. When the home team players are attacking, the audience will keep quiet for fear of affecting the attention of the home team players when they are shooting. Off-court coaches’ words and actions, injuries of athletes, and trivial things they encounter in the course of their lives can also affect their concentration on the court. Therefore, coaches should communicate more with players before the game to understand the situation and deal with it as early as possible. During the game, they should observe carefully and find problems to analyze and instruct on the court in time. Only in this way, they can ensure that the players maintain a high concentration during the game, reduce mistakes, improve the shooting percentage, win the game, and regret apprehension, uneasiness, and pain. If other players on the court do not understand and encourage but complain and blame, the shooter will become uneasy and fearful, and the psychological pressure will increase. Even if the opportunity arises, they will not dare to shoot or shoot stiffly because of pressure and lack of self-confidence. It results in deformation of technical movements, thus losing the opportunity to score or missing the shot and decreasing the hitting rate. Therefore, the players should trust each other during the game, encourage each other, work closely together, and be united. An encouraging word or a high five can make the shooter put down the pressure and go into the next offense with confidence. Resultantly, the hitting rate will naturally increase.
In the NBA Finals 2010–2011, the Mavericks were able to win the championship by encouraging each other despite a big deficit and by relying on sound mechanics and tactics. Physical celebration is a collective term for high-fives, chest bumps, and other encouraging actions. The statistics of the first three games of physical celebration between the Heat and Mavericks show that the Mavericks players encouraged each other significantly more than the Heat. The Mavericks had a total of 250 celebrations in the first three games, while the Heat only had 134. This somehow decided the direction of the series.
2.12. The Impact of the Athlete’s Will Quality on the Shooting Percentage
Basketball is evolving into a sport where competitors not only compete on their physical level, but also on a psychological one. It necessitates not only high technical and tactical abilities, but also a strong will quality and persistence. When the game is near the end or two teams are into the phase of stalemate, the player psychological limits are being tested, as well as their willingness to test the situation during the three minutes of darkness. If the athlete cannot overcome mental pressure and develop winning confidence at this time, they will not be able to fully and correctly use the shooting technique. Thus, affecting the hit rate of shots. Basketball players need to have strong willpower since training and competition are so vital. The technical action of shooting will be deformed if they desire to overcome fatigue. This requires the athlete to have the quality of composure, calmness, resilience, and tenacity.
Factors affecting the hit rate of shooting include the athlete’s emotions, self-confidence, quality of will, psychological tolerance, motivation, and other psychological factors. This ensures that players can play a stable shooting percentage in the game and produce excellent results, perform comprehensive and systematic psychological training for them, and reasonably regulate their psychological state in the game [21, 22].
3. Proposed Training
The proposed training for modern basketball that will help the player psychologically must have two phases. Psychological training in which the player will be motivated, improve willpower, and strengthen confrontation and tension. Technical training in which the player will be trained by using different technical actions, control shooting power and arcs, and improve shooting time. All of these will improve the shooting hit rate and coping strategies.
3.1. Psychological Training
In psychological training, the player will be inspired to engage in-game play using different data mining techniques [5–9], acquire strong willpower, and improve the quality of stimulus conformity in training. The details are as follows.
3.1.1. Motivational Training
In motivational training, the athletes will be motivated to engage in training and competition to increase their conscientiousness and excitement in training and to understand the value of shooting techniques.
3.1.2. Develop a Strong Will Quality
Strong confrontation conditions for shooting training to overcome fatigue and improve willpower and shooting percentage play a better role and at the same time reflect the importance of strong willpower.
3.1.3. Strengthen the Difficulty of Simulated Confrontation in Training
Assume that the score and time pressure are still present, such that we have the assumption that the last 30 seconds, 5 seconds, or the score is behind or tied in the case of special shooting training. The athletes must not panic, their hands must not get soft, and they must use confrontation and tension to strengthen their psychological adaptability to stimulate, improve, and consolidate their shooting percentage.
3.2. Technical Training
In technical training, the player will be trained in technical training by standardizing technical actions and strong stereotypes, controlling shooting strength and arc, and picking the optimal firing moment.
3.2.1. Standardization of Technical Action and Strong Stereotypes
Shooting is done with proper body posture. The technique is based on scientific principles of human movement. The shooting action is divided into three stages, namely the preparation stage, completion stage, and end stage. Only by keeping the shooting technique standardized, practicing for a long time, and forming a solid stereotype, the player can shoot comfortably and correctly at the critical moment of the game to ensure a good shot hitting rate.
3.2.2. Control the Shooting Power and Shooting Arc
The shooting power and arc size are appropriate and have a significant influence on the shooting accuracy. Low arc ball flight distance with short power is easy to handle. The high arc flight path is excessively long, making it difficult to control the force of the ball. Thus, it will also lower the hitting rate.
3.2.3. Selecting the Timing of Shooting
A good shot timing is a prerequisite to improving and maintaining the hitting rate. A good shot timing is just a moment. It makes full use of your technique and grasp the shot timing. In the game, through the tactical cooperation of new shooting opportunities, the partner is in a good position to grab the rebound to make a decisive shot. At this distance, everyone has their own shooting spot, and the shot is the most certain. When you enter your own effective zone and point of attack, look for the defender’s position and take the initiative to shoot if they are far away.
4. Experiments and Analysis
In experiment and analysis, a search in collected literature explains the back basketball hitting rate through China Knowledge Network to grasp the research and development status related to basketball hitting rate technology. It provides the basis for the theoretical analysis of this paper. Sixty questionnaires were distributed to the basketball teams of three middle schools in Jinzhong City, and 60 questionnaires were returned with a 100% return rate. All the survey data were analyzed by mathematical statistics and results. The result is as follows.
4.1. Analysis of Psychological Factors
From Table 1, 35 people (59.7%) accounted for those affected by emotion, 42 people (71.9%) accounted for those affected by self-confidence, 39 people (64.5%) accounted for those affected by environment and external factors, 47 people (78.8%) accounted for those affected by the game being in advance, and 50 people (82.3%) accounted for those affected by the psychological tension when shooting. The factors affecting the shooting percentage in the game are mainly psychological. Taking into account the essence of the factors affecting the shooting percentage, before or during the shooting in the holding phase, the accuracy and stability of the shooting must be affected and, thus, affecting the shooting percentage [23, 24].
4.2. Analysis of Technical Factors
From Table 2, 39 people (63.9%) had a great influence on the shooting percentage, and 33 people (55.8%) did not practice shooting in the game environment.
4.3. Analysis of Physical Quality Factors
According to Table 3, 47 people accounted (78.2%) for the physical strength effect on the shooting percentage, and 35 people accounted (58.7%) for the total number of people who were physically exhausted in the late game.
4.4. Timing of Shooting
From Table 4, 36 people accounted for 59.6% of the total number of shots not from their effective zone or shooting point, 47 people accounted for 78.5% of the total number of people who did not judge the opponent’s defensive ability, 33 people accounted for 55.1% of the total number of people who could not create their shooting opportunities during the game, and 34 people accounted for 57.9% of the total number of people who did not choose a reasonable shot when the score was down. The above table shows that the timing of shooting has a great influence on the shooting rate.
4.5. Analysis of the Results
From the data obtained from the survey, it can be reflected that 35 people were influenced by emotion (59.7%), 42 people were influenced by self-confidence (71.9%), 39 people were influenced by environment and external factors (64.5%), 47 people were influenced by a shot that was related to the promotion of the game (78.8%), and 50 people were mentally nervous when shooting (82.3%).
The factors that affect the shooting rate are mainly concentrated on the psychological factors by using the underlying data mining techniques [25–27].(a)The essence of the factors affecting the shooting accuracy is to affect the shot. If the shot is impacted before or during the holding phase, then the shot’s accuracy and stability must be affected, thus, affecting the shooting accuracy.(b)Technical action is the key mental quality in the accumulation. The timing of the shot is to create clinical judgment based on experience. Thus, the physical fitness is ensured.
4.6. Coping Strategies
Athletes must have the confidence to win before the game in order to establish the right attitude towards the game. They must be good at coping the strategies of the game, enhancing self-confidence, having strong motivation and desire to win, being good at controlling their emotions, concentrating on training and catching better timing. The details are as follows.
4.6.1. Stimulate Good Motivation of the Game
The leading and trailing scores, cheers, and comments from the audience affect the athletes’ emotional changes, thus affecting the shooting percentage. It is common for athletes to have mood swings during the game. The coaches must induce the athletes psychologically, do a good job of stabilizing emotional training before the game, and shift the attention to things not related to the game to make the athletes psychologically relax. They should encourage the athletes’ strengths to motivate morale and strengthen their emotions before the game, especially when the score is ahead. When the score is behind, they have to encourage the athletes’ strengths to motivate morale and strengthen their emotions before the game, and when the athletes overcome negative factors like not being able to shoot under the influence in the game, they can maintain a good state in the game and improve the hitting rate.
4.6.2. Enhance Self-Confidence
Self-confidence is crucial for basketball players. An athlete full of self-confidence can certainly play well in the competition and achieve excellent results. In the usual training, attention must be paid to stimulate the players’ strong motivation and desire to win. Giving full play to its dynamic role will help establish the confidence to win.
4.6.3. Cultivate Attention
Will is the psychological process in the people that consciously determine the purpose and govern their behavior to achieve the predetermined purpose. External factors, as well as their own stress and emotional effect, are the primary causes of willpower distraction. Coaches must train the athletes for these factors. Increasing psychological response during training, helping athletes to grow in life to be effective at regulating their emotions, and training to focus and concentrate better will improve the hitting rate.
Psychological factors in basketball have a direct impact on shooting percentage. We must promote psychological quality training in our daily training and mobilize various positive factors to ensure full play of the shooting technique level. The proposed study maximizes the subjective initiative of the athletes using data mining and inferences, improves their psychological stability, and promotes their body skills and tactics to achieve normal play in the game. Only in this manner, we can truly improve the shooting abilities of the players. Therefore, the following points need to be performed in the basic training. (1) Apply a variety of data mining methods in training to develop the ability of athletes to concentrate according to the characteristics of basketball competition. (2) Use a timed fixed number, fixed point, and fixed distance shooting competition in the presence of interference, and train under adverse conditions, such as site, time, climate, and strong noise, and outside interference, to create a pattern similar to the game. Adopt some adversity situations such as defending high against short, in front of opponents with strong defensive caps, to create difficult stimuli for athletes to influence their emotions and train. (3) Cultivate the quality of will and enhance the training of self-confidence when shooting, encouraging the players to build up their confidence so that they can shoot well when practicing. (4) Cultivate athletes to learn self-psychological adjustment. Coaches should find the psychological changes of players in time when they are on the court and have a set of adjustment methods.
The experimental data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest regarding this work.
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