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Optimization Algorithm of Engineering Project Design Based on BIM Method
BIM is a type of information technology that aims to improve collaboration and productivity by providing data analysis for the entire life cycle of a building. This paper investigates the development of a BIM-based engineering management model and the implementation of BIM-based engineering project information integration management based on BIM information collaboration by analyzing BIM integrated information and combining collaboration theory, engineering project management, and computer network collaboration and interaction theory. The use of BIM technology can effectively improve the control level and implementation efficiency of enterprise projects, reduce the rate of rework, and promote the continuous improvement of the industry’s capability and technology. The entire project operation, design, and construction process can be optimized and managed by using BIM technology to create a digital model.
The construction industry is a manufacturing sector that specializes in engineering survey and design, construction and management, equipment installation, and other specialties, which promotes global economic development and generates significant wealth for society . Due to a variety of factors, including a large number of participants, continuous upgrading and expansion of construction scale, large investment in construction resources, and backward construction management technology, the construction industry remains in a state of extensive management. A construction engineering project is an activity that combines preliminary planning, scheme design, construction management, and property management. There are a large number of project participants throughout the entire life cycle of engineering project construction, the content of project information is diverse, and the number is enormous. There are frequently some phenomena such as fuzzy project  information data and serious information loss in the process of engineering project collaborative management, which leads to insufficient effective transmission and sharing of project information among participants . Technological and management innovation in the construction industry have emerged as critical topics for promoting the long-term development of construction firms. New technology can play an important role in the development of an industry. Resource management, as an important component of construction site management, has a number of issues, including insufficient optimization of resource allocation, chaotic resource management, a lack of resource adjustment ability, and so on . The construction industry urgently needs to implement building information modeling (BIM) technology to change the management mode in order to improve its competitiveness and survive and develop in the face of fierce competition .
The scale and content of construction projects are becoming larger and more complex as the social economy and technology develop at a rapid pace. Most projects do not carry out collaborative management in the current project implementation process, and some enterprises only analyze collaborative information in collaborative management, which has no significant impact on the actual implementation of project information integration management . Small project resource management is heavily reliant on managers’ experience in the actual management of construction resources. Professionals rely more on bar charts and network plans for large and complex engineering projects. With the rapid development of the construction industry, the situation of production safety is also very serious, and it must be addressed. Construction safety management is an important goal of project management, and the achievement of other management goals is heavily reliant on the quality of safety management . Improving the construction industry’s production level and overall efficiency can not only better promote domestic economic development but also play an important role in saving energy and protecting the environment, promoting the “transformation of old and new kinetic energy,” and promoting the transformation of domestic economic development from high-speed development to high-quality development . This paper investigates the construction of a BIM-based engineering management model and the implementation of a BIM-based engineering project information integration management based on BIM information collaboration, through the analysis of BIM integrated information, combined with collaboration theory, engineering project management, and computer network collaboration and interaction theory.
With the use of IT in the construction field, businesses gradually incorporate new ideas and technologies into construction management in order to reduce project risks and maximize benefit value . There are numerous issues with traditional engineering inspection information management, such as poor technology, low collaborative management efficiency, and poor communication between departments. The new engineering project management uses BIM technology as the basic unit of management, establishes the collaborative management model in construction, effectively controls construction refinement, enables all departments in construction to realize effective communication, solves the phenomenon of construction waste cost, and improves the overall efficiency of engineering projects . According to the manufacturing industry’s cost-control experience, the improvement of the industry’s overall level is dependent on high process and high informatization . The main challenges confronting modern construction project management are how to carry out lean construction and fine industry management, how to improve the reliability of project objective implementation, how to effectively process and utilize information, and how to make efficient coordination among various projects and disciplines in order to improve industry efficiency and profit . The use of BIM Technology can effectively improve the enterprise’s control level and project implementation efficiency, reduce the rework rate, and promote the continuous improvement of the industry’s capability and technology. The entire project operation, design, and construction process can be optimized and managed by using BIM Technology to create a digital model.
2. Related Work
Literature  points out that computer interconnected construction (CIC) is to better integrate the management, planning, design, construction, and operation of building products with computers. Literature , on the basis of BIM, explores new ways of collecting project information data and study how to use the collected project information to manage the project in real time. Literature  aim at the concept of integrated risk management, and computer technology is used to effectively deal with the risk integration problems such as technology, schedule, and cost in engineering project management. Literature  analyzes the possibility of applying the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) standard in domestic cost series software, compares the current engineering cost budgeting methods and related standards in China with IFC standard, and puts forward corresponding solutions. Literature  expounds that the information and data exchange between different BIM softwares need to be carried out through the unified IFC standard. Literature , from the perspective of tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge, an integrated management system of engineering project knowledge is constructed in an all-round way to highlight the functions of practical experience and tacit knowledge in engineering project management. Literature  summarizes the current situation of project information system, analyzes the existing problems, and establishes the framework of BIM project information management system. Literature  holds that the application of BIM model is not limited to the project design and construction stage but also can be extended to the project operation stage, and the solutions and management modes are discussed. Literature  holds that the effective use of IT and methods is the focus of the integrated management information system of engineering projects, which can be used to improve the quality of the whole life cycle of engineering projects, speed up the implementation progress of projects, and reduce the project cost. In literature , based on the concept of integrated risk management, computer technology is used to deal with risk integration problems such as cost, schedule, and technology in engineering project management. Literature  puts forward that the design core of integrated management information system for engineering projects lies in the full application of IT and means to realize the three core management objectives of quality, schedule, and cost in the whole life cycle of engineering projects.
At present, more and more engineering projects are using BIM technology in the construction stage. Combined with the application of BIM in the past, the cases of simple application of BIM technology have gradually decreased, usually using BIM technology together with other technologies, such as IT and professional technology. The purpose of this paper is to study the application integration of BIM and project management in the construction stage, use BIM technology to establish an integrated management mode of engineering projects suitable for construction enterprises, comprehensively adjust the construction management process based on BIM technology, and optimize various management measures with BIM technology, so as to improve the construction management level.
3. Integrated Management and BIM Technology
3.1. Connotation and Characteristics of Integrated Management
The concept of integration is an ideological method for solving large-scale, complex structure, and numerous factors of complex projects’ organization and management problems, and it is essentially the embodiment of management concept integration . As a result, integration management refers to the process of actively planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling the integration activities of specific elements, as well as the formation, maintenance, development, and changes of integration bodies, in order to achieve the goal of integration and efficiency increase. The goal of cost control is unclear. It is simply to establish the total project budget through contract price reduction or price reduction after bidding and to close the cost in accordance with the project schedule’s milestones. The object of management is primarily the integration activities of elements, which include not only the management of the aggregation process of elements with common attributes but also the maintenance of the whole or system formed by the aggregation of elements, as well as the study of the change and development law of the whole system under the influence of internal and external environment.
3.2. BIM Technology Theory
BIM is a digital representation of the physical facilities and functional characteristics of engineering projects. It is a knowledge resource of shared engineering project and facility information, and it can provide data support for all decisions made throughout the engineering project and facility’s life cycle. A construction project is a specific process composed of interconnected activities with the goal of building as the output and a start and finish time. The ultimate goal of this process should be to meet the intended use requirements as well as the standard’s quality, time limit, cost, and resource constraints . The exchange rate of information is very low in the old information integration management mode, which leads to a lot of information waste, and information cannot be optimized globally, which severely reduces the time of information transmission. Based on BIM technology, the information integration management mode connects and communicates the project in all directions and cycles, effectively solves the information dispersion phenomenon, realizes effective information sharing and collaborative work, and forms a targeted information integration management mode. The BIM central database is an important hub for the entire project’s information exchange, and it can effectively connect the data and resources of various organizations. It contains a wealth of information about each stage of construction and serves as an architectural design model for the entire project team.
4.1. Project Information Integration Based on BIM Technology
The central BIM database facilitates the creation, sharing, updating, and management of information throughout the project life cycle. It enables each department to communicate effectively while maintaining information consistency and clarity . It is not only a communication center but also a communication and storage platform. As the project’s construction phase progresses, BIM model information becomes more in-depth, detailed, and practical, which can further form the information chain docking. Each organization’s information will no longer be limited to the sharing and communication of information between neighboring organizations, which reflects the timeliness and sharing of information. Within a certain range, any member or organization can access and share information with other groups. Based on BIM, virtual simulation technology has gradually evolved into multidimensional model information integration technology, allowing all building participants to carry out corresponding information operations in the virtual digital building model and operate the model with digital parameters. The effective connection between management information and technology information is realized through the use of BIM IT, which can ensure the smooth implementation of integrated management in all stages of construction projects, including performance, quality, schedule, safety, cost, and so on, effectively improving the work level and efficiency.
With the emergence of BIM technology, it is possible to avoid and reduce information loss. Through the insertion, extraction, update, and modification of information, it supports the collaborative work of different stakeholders in different stages of construction projects, so a key point of BIM is the information exchange process. The main integration and collaboration technologies are shown in Figure 1.
Element management is one of the important contents of integrated management. During the implementation of a project, the progress or change of each element directly or indirectly affects several other elements. BIM technology involves many professional fields, including professional knowledge in civil engineering, computer, architecture, and other fields. Information integration management based on BIM is a very complicated process, so it is the key to cultivate talents with BIM technology. BIM software developers should strengthen the design and development of their own products, vigorously carry out professional training, and build a professional BIM technology echelon. The government should also provide relevant support to promote the development of BIM technology from all aspects, so as to make the project collaborative management of enterprises more innovative.
As shown in Figure 2, in the traditional mode, the information exchange among the participants is through two-way communication among the participants, and the information exchange lines are crossed by many parties, with complex information exchange networks, low communication efficiency, difficult problem understanding, and asymmetric information. As shown in Figure 3, the traditional information exchange mode has been changed by BIM technology, and all participants transmit information through a common building information management platform, which simplifies the information transmission network and the transmission process.
Because information and intellectual property rights are easily stolen during the circulation and sharing processes, the use of BIM technology can clearly control ownership of information property rights and avoid responsibility disputes among various units. As a result, we should fully utilize the BIM standard contract model, clarify the information of each clause, and clearly define the responsibilities at the time of delivery, information management, information security, information model, and so on, in order to effectively realize collaborative project information management. Management by objectives typically includes five stages for a basic project: start-up, planning, execution, control, and termination. The plan is primarily based on BIM technology to create a comprehensive resource database, which allows project managers to quickly determine the specific implementation plan of resource input on the BIM information management platform.
4.2. Computerization of Network Planning and Resource Optimization Based on BIM
The network planning technology is a technology that, in the form of a network diagram, can intuitively reflect the logical sequence of each component in a specific project and, on the basis of this logical sequence, calculate the relevant parameters of each component according to the relevant calculation rules, resulting in the key routes and key processes. Process analysis for progress control following the determination of the contract signing progress node, formulate the project progress master control plan, decompose the implementation plans of various disciplines in accordance with the master control plan, and formulate the implementation plans and supporting work plans of various subprojects in accordance with the implementation plans of various disciplines. The model element depicts the building’s actual three-dimensional geometry, including the main body and model components. View-specific elements include annotation elements and detail elements. Annotation elements are two-dimensional components that archive the model and maintain the scale on the drawing, while detail elements are two-dimensional items that provide detailed information about the building model in a specific view. Because the goal of integrated information management is to open and share information from all project departments on time, the information boundary must be precisely defined.
A large number of engineering practices show that the reasonable use of network planning technology can effectively achieve the purpose of shortening the construction period, reducing costs and optimizing resources. The minimum variance method takes variance as the evaluation index, and realizes the minimum variance by adjusting noncritical work. The optimization principle is as follows:
We already know
In formula (1), is the variance, T is the duration, in formula (3), is the resource usage of the resource on the ith day, and is the average resource usage per unit time. Because T and are constants, in order to minimize the variance, the sum of squares of resource consumption in formula (4) must be minimized.
For some business secrets and important information related to construction enterprises, the safety of enterprises must be taken into account, and timely control should be carried out, the rationality of central data of information should be clarified, and appropriate sharing and dissemination should be carried out. Through the extraction and application of BIM model information, the feasibility of BIM technology in multifactor management is verified. In the process of making the schedule, it is necessary to repeatedly optimize and adjust the schedule from the factors of project implementation cost, engineering technical feasibility and material input. When the lower level plan is adjusted, it is necessary to adjust the schedule plan of the upper level step by step, which is difficult and time consuming. See Figure 4 for details of the project schedule control process.
On the basis of two-dimensional drawing analysis, the advanced three-dimensional parametric modeling of BIM technology is used to express all kinds of building information in the BIM in a unified way, so as to realize the integration and complete sharing of building information. Through the related BIM inspection series software, the parametric model can be checked for conflict and collision, and the deviation can be corrected. At the same time, virtual roaming can be used to check the built 3D model comprehensively and in real time. The management flow of each element is shown in Figure 5.
The correlation between the change of the project status and the influencing factors is expressed as follows:
Y is the change amplitude of the engineering state, X is the influencing factor, A is the degree of influence of the influencing factor, and F is the influence function. Let us assume that there are n engineering states to be evaluated, the corresponding engineering states change to Y, and there are m influencing factors X. Each of the influencing factors is x, the engineering planning factor is , the degree of influence of different influencing factors is a, and the degree of influence of engineering planning factors is , then the above formula can be expressed as
If the space dimension and the time dimension are considered, the correlation is expressed as follows:
Management is a brand new management concept and method, which emphasizes the application of integration ideas and theories to guide management practice. Its characteristics include subjective behavior, function multiplication, overall optimization, and compatibility. When the resource scheduling is not timely or the cost budget is unreasonable, which hinders the smooth progress of the project, it is impossible to judge the project problems through the content of the cost control method. Only by analyzing and comparing a series of materials such as the operation level of the construction team, the actual situation of the site construction, the project design drawings, and the specific provisions of the contract, can we find out the root of the problem, which greatly affects the progress of the project. In the aspect of plan management, schedule, resource plan, cost plan and cost control process, material cost, and actual project progress are completely separated and unrelated. In the aspect of dynamic resource control, specific data such as demand quantity and time cannot be automatically generated after the change of resource demand, so it is impossible to analyze and compare information such as the use of material quantity, resource scheduling and allocation, and material price comparison.
5. Result Analysis and Discussion
There are many participants in the whole process of construction projects, and different participants have different responsibilities and roles in the whole process of construction projects, so the information needed and generated is also different. The information management platform based on BIM technology provides a virtual environment for all participants to exchange information. In the management of engineering construction projects, the final goal of the project is formed by managing the mutually influencing and restricting objectives such as project schedule, quality, cost, contract, safety, risk, and environment. Through the multiobjective integration of engineering project management, the work of all participants in the project can be coordinated, so that all aspects of work can cooperate with each other in the process of project implementation and achieve organic coordination and unity. Geometric modeling is the first development in the three-dimensional interaction of architectural engineering layout, analyze its path density, number of nodes, and central potential. The relationship between path density and node path is shown in Figure 6.
On-site resource management urgently needs to make an accurate resource management plan in advance and do a good job of real-time dynamic management and optimization of resources in the construction process to ensure the smooth progress of the resource management plan. The BIM technology combined with computerized optimization method can meet the above requirements. The premise of multidiscipline integration, whole life cycle integration, and management goal integration of engineering projects is to obtain enough project information. Therefore, efficient retrieval, collection, storage, processing, and transmission of project information directly affect the management efficiency of engineering construction projects. The information in the building has the characteristics of huge quantity, complex types, scattered storage, and dynamic changes, so to realize the efficient use of engineering information, it is necessary to carry out integrated management of information. Project integration management requires all participants in a project to consider the overall situation, make full use of their unique knowledge and experience, and actively participate in project management, so it is necessary to provide timely and accurate information exchange and sharing for all participants.
If all participants in the project apply BIM-based project management information system, the advantages of BIM will be further reflected. Building modeling considers the physical attributes of objects when modeling. BIM can describe data sets with self-similar characteristics. Figure 7 shows the comparison results of algorithm performance before and after storage optimization.
In the process of building construction, there will be a lot of interchange operations in limited construction sites and spaces. If the planning is unreasonable, there will be many potential safety hazards in the construction process. Moreover, the construction site environment will change with the construction progress, so it is necessary to carry out dynamic safety management on the construction site and space. Using BIM technology can not only build a visual 3D model but also conduct a 4D construction simulation. On this basis, we can manage the construction safety in different stages of construction, find out the potential safety hazards before the actual construction, and then control the safety risks by optimizing the construction scheme or formulating safety emergency measures. The relationship between risk evaluation and risk factor changes is shown in Figure 8.
The construction stage of the project is the process of transforming the objects described in the drawings into engineering entities according to the requirements of relevant design documents and construction drawings. Due to many uncertain factors, long construction period, many construction contracts, and various contents involved in the construction phase of the project, it is necessary to focus on strengthening the coordination of the project during the construction process. BIM-based information integration management of engineering projects can overcome the problem of information collaboration in information integration management of engineering projects by using BIM technology, realize the integration and sharing of information in all stages of the whole life cycle of engineering projects, reduce the level of information transmission, reduce the efficiency of information distortion, and effectively realize the collaborative management among project participants. Safety management, as an important part of project management, directly affects the realization of other goals of the project.
The urban landscape building model created based on BIM tasks can solve the design problems and quality problems that may occur in engineering projects in advance through collision detection and other forms. Comparison of topology optimization simulation is shown in Figure 9.
The project management model based on BIM tasks can be used to solve the possible design problems and quality problems of the project in advance through collision detection and other forms. Comparison of topology optimization simulation is shown in Figure 10.
We can analyze the actual data and target data of urban buildings in different districts to understand the actual management progress and management problems. In the auxiliary decision-making function, the evaluation information of urban residents on the classification of buildings can also be included, so that residents’ recognition and satisfaction with the classification of urban buildings can be improved. The comparison result between the predicted value and the experimental value of building classification recognition degree is shown in Figure 11.
Experiments show that the predicted value and the tested value have the same trend as a whole, and the accuracy is high. The operation stage of the project is mainly to manage the building facilities, and the information involved includes the basic information of facilities and equipment and the extended information input during the operation. Basic information includes geometric dimensions of buildings, performance of building components, analysis of building performance, layout of building space, equipment inspection, and maintenance plan, etc. On the basis of basic information, operators expand the operation information related to construction facilities. As an important participant in the project construction, if the construction unit can be in such a platform of information sharing and the management mode of integrated collaborative work in the construction stage, it will be easier to achieve the goals of safety, progress, quality, and cost of the project. Based on the research and organization management of multielement integrated management, multiparticipant-integrated management, and information management of the project, combined with the organization management theory, the organization structure of the project based on BIM led by the owner is established. Each participant realizes information exchange and data sharing of the same BIM information model through network technology and information management system platform.
In the traditional collaborative management of engineering projects, due to the large number of participants, huge amount of project information, complex content, frequent information data and other phenomena, the project information cannot be effectively transmitted and shared among the participants, which greatly reduces the efficiency of project management. Because of the complex construction environment and the lengthy construction period, it is necessary to organize people, materials, and machines to carry out a large number of complex construction activities on a limited construction site and space. The construction process is complicated by many overlapping operations in space and time, making construction safety management difficult. As a result, there are numerous potential safety hazards in the building process. A BIM-based architectural design is a three-dimensional design based on BIM technology. The model can be modified in real time during the design process, allowing for synchronous updates of each major. Simultaneously, the use of BIM technology can not only simulate real buildings but also inform all participants intuitively from the scheme to the construction drawing stages. As a digital model platform, BIM can enable information sharing and improvement throughout the entire project life cycle, from decision-making to design, construction, and operation and maintenance. If the mobile computing technology can be combined, managers can carry out real-time construction simulation, collision detection, and hazard identification at the construction site and make deviation adjustment according to the simulation results and detection reports, so that the simulation results are consistent with the actual situation, which is more conducive to the safety risk control in the construction process.
The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the author upon request.
Conflicts of Interest
The author declares no conflicts of interest.
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