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The Generation, Analysis, and Circuit Implementation of a New Memristor Based Chaotic System
We present a new memristor based chaotic circuit, which is generated by replacing the nonlinear resistor in Chua’s circuit with a flux-controlled memristor and a negative conductance. The dynamical behaviors are verified not only by computer simulations but also by Lyapunov exponents, bifurcation analysis, Poincaré mapping, power spectrum analysis, and laboratory experiments.
The memristor was postulated in 1971 by circuit theorist Chua as a missing nonlinear two-terminal electrical component relating electric charge and magnetic flux linkage . In 2008, a team at HP Labs introduced a model for a memristance function based on thin films of titanium dioxide . From then on, memristor has attracted worldwide interest due to its promising applications in nanoelectronic memories, computer logic, and neuromorphic computer architectures .
Chaos has great potential application in many engineering fields, such as image encryption and secure communications. As a nonlinear circuit element, the memristor is very suitable for the design of chaotic circuits and the generation of chaotic systems. Some memristor based chaotic circuits were presented by replacing the Chua diodes with memristors characterized by monotone-increasing piecewise-linear function [4–6]. Several smooth flux-controlled memristors characterized by cubic or piecewise-quadratic nonlinearities were developed in [7–9]. Moreover, attempts have been made on the generation of memristor based hyperchaotic circuits [10, 11].
In this paper, a memristor based chaotic circuit is presented by replacing the nonlinear resistor in Chua’s circuit with a flux-controlled memristor which is characterized by a smooth cubic nonlinear resistor. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. The new chaotic circuit with memristor and the corresponding mathematical model are presented in Section 2. The dynamical behaviors of the new system are analyzed in Section 3. Circuit for the implementation of this chaotic circuit is proposed in Section 4. Finally, some conclusions are drawn in Section 5.
2. Chaotic Circuit with Memristor
The two nonlinear functions and , called the memristance and memductance , respectively, are defined by
The memristor used in this paper is a flux-controlled memristor, and we assume that the flux-controlled memristor is characterized by a smooth continuous cubic monotone-increasing nonlinearity as follows: where , .
In view of (2), the memductance is given by Thus, by replacing Chua’s diode in Chua’s circuit with an active two-terminal memristive circuit consisting of a negative conductance and a flux-controlled memristor characterized by (3), a smooth memristor oscillator can be designed.
The memristor based chaotic circuit is shown in Figure 1. This circuit consists of four basic circuit elements and has only one negative element in addition to the nonlinearity.
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage and current laws and component’s current-voltage relationship to the circuit in Figure 1, we can obtain a system of differential equations governing the dynamical behavior of the circuit in Figure 1, described by where the characteristic curve of the flux-controlled memristor is described by (3) and (4).
Equation (5) can be transformed into the dimensionless form as by letting , , , , , , , , , and defining the nonlinear functions and as
3. Numerical Analysis
Similar to dynamical analysis of general chaotic circuits, by using the conventional dynamical analysis methods, such as bifurcation diagram, Lyapunov exponent spectra, the dynamical behaviors of the chaotic system (6) are studied when the system parameters are varied.
3.1. Bifurcation Analysis
Holding the values of , , , , fixed and changing the value of , the spectra of Lyapunov exponents on the () plane are obtained as shown in Figure 3, and the corresponding bifurcation diagram is given in Figure 4.
It can be seen from Figures 4 and 5 that the bifurcation diagram is consistent well with the Lyapunov exponent spectrum. From Figure 5, we observe that system (6) undergoes the following routes as increases.(1)When , , , system (6) is periodic (Figure 5(a)).(2)When , , , system (6) is quasi-periodic (Figure 5(b)).(3)When , , , , system (6) is chaotic (Figure 5(c)).(4)When , , , system (6) is quasi-periodic (Figure 5(d)).(5)When , , , system (6) is chaotic (Figure 5(e)).(6)When , , , system (6) is quasi-periodic (Figure 5(f)).(7)When , , , system (6) is chaotic (Figure 5(g)).
3.2. Poincaré Maps and Power Spectrum Analysis
Poincaré mapping is shown in Figure 6, and system parameters are selected as , , , , and .
4. Circuit Design for Chaotic System
In this section, we present experimental confirmation of the above numerical results through Multisim modeling. The circuit is designed as in Figure 8.
The two-terminal memristor consists of five Op-Amps TL084, two analog multipliers AD633, thirteen resistors, and three capacitances. The parameter values of the circuit are ,, , , , ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; , . The power supplies are V and V. For different parameter R13, the attractors are observed as in Figure 9.
In this paper, we present a memristor chaotic circuit, which is derived from Chua’s oscillator by replacing Chua’s diode with a charge-controlled memristor. This chaotic circuit uses only four basic circuit elements and has only one negative element in addition to the nonlinearity. The resulting chaotic system is demonstrated by computer simulations and verified by Lyapunov exponents, bifurcation, poincaré mapping, and power spectrum analysis.
This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 60971022 and no. 61004078).
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Copyright © 2013 Yuxia Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.