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Mathematical Problems in Engineering
Volume 2013, Article ID 459503, 13 pages
Research Article

A Constructive Data Classification Version of the Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

Natural Computing Laboratory, Mackenzie University, Rua da Consolação 930, 01302-907 São Paulo, Brazil

Received 2 October 2012; Revised 1 November 2012; Accepted 8 November 2012

Academic Editor: Baozhen Yao

Copyright © 2013 Alexandre Szabo and Leandro Nunes de Castro. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The particle swarm optimization algorithm was originally introduced to solve continuous parameter optimization problems. It was soon modified to solve other types of optimization tasks and also to be applied to data analysis. In the latter case, however, there are few works in the literature that deal with the problem of dynamically building the architecture of the system. This paper introduces new particle swarm algorithms specifically designed to solve classification problems. The first proposal, named Particle Swarm Classifier (PSClass), is a derivation of a particle swarm clustering algorithm and its architecture, as in most classifiers, is pre-defined. The second proposal, named Constructive Particle Swarm Classifier (cPSClass), uses ideas from the immune system to automatically build the swarm. A sensitivity analysis of the growing procedure of cPSClass and an investigation into a proposed pruning procedure for this algorithm are performed. The proposals were applied to a wide range of databases from the literature and the results show that they are competitive in relation to other approaches, with the advantage of having a dynamically constructed architecture.