Mathematical Problems in Engineering / 2013 / Article / Fig 3

Research Article

Implementation of Fictitious Crack Model Using Contact Finite Element Method for the Crack Propagation in Concrete under Cyclic Load

Figure 3

Loading/unloading model for crack propagation under cyclic load. (a) Elastic loading and unloading model, (b) Hordijk-Reinhardt model, and (c) Toumi model.

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