Table 3: The results of PSO-PPA algorithm and PPA algorithm [16]. Here, we take the initial point (4, 4, 4, 4), and .

The outer loop frequencyThe results of PPA algorithm [16]The optimal solutions of the inner PSO algorithm Optimal value searched of PSO-PPA algorithm

0 No initial point0.0000452980

1 (1.2219250440, 0.00078655, 0.0001577908, 0.5062041930)0.0000204037

2 (1.2241342825, 0.0002446163, 0.0010401665, 0.5009627573)0.0000041382

3 (1.2244250916, 0.0001641937, 0.0017222716, 0.5002389457)0.0000034146

4 (1.2243865723, 0.0001146427, 0.0019498208, 0.5001595384)0.0000033836