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Mathematical Problems in Engineering
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 895374, 10 pages
Research Article

CFD Simulation of Heat Transfer and Turbulent Fluid Flow over a Double Forward-Facing Step

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Thi-Qar, 64001 Nassiriya, Iraq
3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, 75450 Melaka, Malaysia

Received 31 August 2013; Revised 10 November 2013; Accepted 10 November 2013

Academic Editor: Oluwole Daniel Makinde

Copyright © 2013 Hussein Togun et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Heat transfer and turbulent water flow over a double forward-facing step were investigated numerically. The finite volume method was used to solve the corresponding continuity, momentum, and energy equations using the -ε model. Three cases, corresponding to three different step heights, were investigated for Reynolds numbers ranging from 30,000 to 100,000 and temperatures ranging from 313 to 343 K. The bottom of the wall was heated, whereas the top was insulated. The results show that the Nusselt number increased with the Reynolds number and step height. The maximum Nusselt number was observed for case 3, with a Reynolds number of 100,000 and temperature of 343 K, occurring at the second step. The behavior of the Nusselt number was similar for all cases at a given Reynolds number and temperature. A recirculation zone was observed before and after the first and second steps in the contour maps of the velocity field. In addition, the results indicate that the coefficient pressure increased with increasing Reynolds number and step height. ANSYS FLUENT 14 (CFD) software was employed to run the simulations.