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Mathematical Problems in Engineering
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 383270, 10 pages
Research Article

Automatic 3D City Modeling Using a Digital Map and Panoramic Images from a Mobile Mapping System

1Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701, Republic of Korea
21st R&D Institute, Agency for Defense Development, 488 Bugyuseong-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-152, Republic of Korea

Received 20 May 2014; Revised 16 July 2014; Accepted 16 July 2014; Published 13 August 2014

Academic Editor: Jong-Hyuk Park

Copyright © 2014 Hyungki Kim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Three-dimensional city models are becoming a valuable resource because of their close geospatial, geometrical, and visual relationship with the physical world. However, ground-oriented applications in virtual reality, 3D navigation, and civil engineering require a novel modeling approach, because the existing large-scale 3D city modeling methods do not provide rich visual information at ground level. This paper proposes a new framework for generating 3D city models that satisfy both the visual and the physical requirements for ground-oriented virtual reality applications. To ensure its usability, the framework must be cost-effective and allow for automated creation. To achieve these goals, we leverage a mobile mapping system that automatically gathers high-resolution images and supplements sensor information such as the position and direction of the captured images. To resolve problems stemming from sensor noise and occlusions, we develop a fusion technique to incorporate digital map data. This paper describes the major processes of the overall framework and the proposed techniques for each step and presents experimental results from a comparison with an existing 3D city model.