Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mathematical Problems in Engineering
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 412718, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/412718
Research Article

Heat Transfer and Failure Mode Analyses of Ultrahigh-Temperature Ceramic Thermal Protection System of Hypersonic Vehicles

Chongqing Key Laboratory of Heterogeneous Material Mechanics, College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030, China

Received 6 May 2014; Accepted 3 June 2014; Published 1 July 2014

Academic Editor: Christopher Gunaseelan Jesudason

Copyright © 2014 Tianbao Cheng et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. W. G. Fahrenholtz, G. E. Hilmas, I. G. Talmy, and J. A. Zaykoski, “Refractory diborides of zirconium and hafnium,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 90, no. 5, pp. 1347–1364, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. F. Monteverde and A. Bellosi, “Effect of the addition of silicon nitride on sintering behaviour and microstructure of zirconium diboride,” Scripta Materialia, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 223–228, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. W. W. Wu, G. J. Zhang, Y. M. Kan, and P. L. Wang, “Reactive hot pressing of ZrB2-SiC-ZrC ultra high-temperature ceramics at 1800°C,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 89, no. 9, pp. 2967–2969, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. L. Silvestroni, D. Sciti, J. Kling, S. Lauterbach, and H. J. Kleebe, “Sintering mechanisms of zirconium and hafnium carbides doped with MoSi2,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 92, no. 7, pp. 1574–1579, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. K. Sonber and A. K. Suri, “Synthesis and consolidation of zirconium diboride: review,” Advances in Applied Ceramics, vol. 110, no. 6, pp. 321–334, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. V. Zamora, A. L. Ortiz, F. Guiberteau, and M. Nygren, “In situ formation of ZrB2-ZrO2 ultra-high-temperature ceramic composites from high-energy ball-milled ZrB2 powders,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 518, pp. 38–43, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. Orrù and G. Cao, “Comparison of reactive and non-reactive spark plasma sintering routes for the fabrication of monolithic and composite Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTC) materials,” Materials, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 1566–1583, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. G. B. Yadhukulakrishnan, S. Karumuri, A. Rahman, R. P. Singh, A. Kaan Kalkan, and S. P. Harimkar, “Spark plasma sintering of graphene reinforced zirconium diboride ultra-high temperature ceramic composites,” Ceramics International, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 6637–6646, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. R. Levine, E. J. Opila, M. C. Halbig, J. D. Kiser, M. Singh, and J. A. Salem, “Evaluation of ultra-high temperature ceramics for aeropropulsion use,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 22, no. 14-15, pp. 2757–2767, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. Gasch, D. Ellerby, E. Irby, S. Beckman, M. Gusman, and S. Johnson, “Processing, properties and arc jet oxidation of hafnium diboride/silicon carbide ultra high temperature ceramics,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 39, no. 19, pp. 5925–5937, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Rezaie, W. G. Fahrenholtz, and G. E. Hilmas, “Evolution of structure during the oxidation of zirconium diboride-silicon carbide in air up to 1500°C,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 2495–2501, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. N. Karlsdottir and J. W. Halloran, “Rapid oxidation characterization of ultra-high temperature ceramics,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 90, no. 10, pp. 3233–3238, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. Han, P. Hu, X. Zhang, and S. Meng, “Oxidation behavior of zirconium diboride-silicon carbide at 1800°C,” Scripta Materialia, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 825–828, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. W. G. Fahrenholtz and G. E. Hilmas, “Oxidation of ultra-high temperature transition metal diboride ceramics,” International Materials Reviews, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 61–72, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. L. Charpentier, M. Balat-Pichelin, D. Sciti, and L. Silvestroni, “High temperature oxidation of Zr- and Hf-carbides: influence of matrix and sintering additive,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 33, no. 15-16, pp. 2867–2878, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. M. Opeka, I. G. Talmy, E. J. Wuchina, J. A. Zaykoski, and S. J. Causey, “Mechanical, thermal, and oxidation properties of refractory hafnium and zirconium compounds,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 19, no. 13-14, pp. 2405–2414, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. E. Wuchina, M. Opeka, S. Causey et al., “Designing for ultrahigh-temperature applications: the mechanical and thermal properties of HfB2, HfCx, HfNx and αHf(N),” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 39, no. 19, pp. 5939–5949, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. R. Loehman, E. Corral, H. P. Dumm, P. Kotula, and R. Tandon, “Ultra high temperature ceramics for hypersonic vehicle applications,” SAND 2006–2925, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, USA, 2006.
  19. M. Gasch, S. Johnson, and J. Marschall, “Thermal conductivity characterization of hafnium diboride-based ultra-high-temperature ceramics,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 91, no. 5, pp. 1423–1432, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Ramírez-Rico, M. A. Bautista, J. Martínez-Fernández, and M. Singh, “Compressive strength degradation in ZrB2-based ultra-high temperature ceramic composites,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 1345–1352, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. Zou, G. J. Zhang, C. F. Hu et al., “High-temperature bending strength, internal friction and stiffness of ZrB2-20vol% SiC ceramics,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 2519–2527, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. Zou, G. J. Zhang, C. F. Hu et al., “Strong ZrB2—SiC—WC ceramics at 1600°C,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 874–878, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. W. Bird, R. P. Aune, A. F. Thomas, P. F. Becher, and K. W. White, “Temperature-dependent mechanical and long crack behavior of zirconium diboride-silicon carbide composite,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 32, no. 12, pp. 3453–3462, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. E. W. Neuman, G. E. Hilmas, and W. G. Fahrenholtz, “Strength of zirconium diboride to 2300°C,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 47–50, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. B. Zhang, X. M. Cheng, D. N. Fang, L. L. Ke, and Y. S. Wang, “Ultra-high-temperature tensile properties and fracture behavior of ZrB2-based ceramics in air above 1500°C,” Materials and Design, vol. 52, pp. 17–22, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. B. Zhang, R. J. He, X. H. Zhang, and D. N. Fang, “Microstructure and mechanical properties of ZrB2-SiC composites prepared by gelcasting and pressureless sintering,” International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, vol. 43, pp. 83–88, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  27. T. B. Cheng, W. G. Li, and D. N. Fang, “Thermal shock resistance of ultra-high-temperature ceramics under aerodynamic thermal environments,” AIAA Journal, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 840–848, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. T. B. Cheng, W. G. Li, C. Z. Zhang, and D. N. Fang, “Unified thermal shock resistance of ultra-high temperature ceramics under different thermal environments,” Journal of Thermal Stresses, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 14–33, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  29. R. Savino, M. de Stefano Fumo, D. Paterna, and M. Serpico, “Aerothermodynamic study of UHTC-based thermal protection systems,” Aerospace Science and Technology, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 151–160, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. L. Blosser, Advanced metallic thermal protection systems for reusable launch vehicles [Ph.D. thesis], School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va, USA, 2000.
  31. T. L. Bergman, A. S. Lavine, F. P. Incropera, and D. P. DeWitt, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2011.
  32. N. Noda, “Thermal stresses in materials with temperature-dependent properties,” in Thermal Stresses I, R. B. Hetnarski, Ed., pp. 391–438, Elsevier Science, North-Holland, The Netherlands, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  33. Y. Tanigawa, T. Akai, R. Kawamura, and N. Oka, “Transient heat conduction and thermal stress problems of a nonhomogeneous plate with temperature-dependent material properties,” Journal of Thermal Stresses, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 77–102, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. K. S. Kim and N. Noda, “Green's function approach to solution of transient temperature for thermal stresses of functionally graded material,” JSME International Journal A, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 31–36, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. B. L. Wang, Y. W. Mai, and X. H. Zhang, “Functionally graded materials under severe thermal environments,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 683–690, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. Q. Guo, Y. Kagawa, and T. Nishimura, “Mechanical behavior of two-step hot-pressed ZrB2-based composites with ZrSi2,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 787–794, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. W. G. Li, R. Z. Wang, D. Y. Li, and D. N. Fang, “A model of temperature-dependent Young's modulus for ultrahigh temperature ceramics,” Physics Research International, vol. 2011, Article ID 791545, 3 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. S. Timoshenko and J. N. Goodier, Theory of Elasticity, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 1951. View at MathSciNet
  39. W. D. Kingery, “Factors affecting thermal stress resistance of ceramic materials,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 3–15, 1955. View at Google Scholar