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Mathematical Problems in Engineering
Volume 2014, Article ID 714267, 7 pages
Research Article

Potential Field Cellular Automata Model for Pedestrian Evacuation in a Domain with a Ramp

School of Economics and Management, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China

Received 14 November 2013; Accepted 23 December 2013; Published 11 February 2014

Academic Editor: Hu Shao

Copyright © 2014 Xiao-Xia Jian and Xiaoning Zhang. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We propose a potential field cellular automata model with a pushing force field to simulate the pedestrian evacuation in a domain with a ramp. We construct a cost potential depending on the ramp angle and introduce a function to evaluate the pushing force, which is related to the cost and the desired direction of pedestrian. With increase of crowd density, there is no empty space for pedestrian moving forward; pedestrian will purposefully push another pedestrian on her or his desired location to arrive the destination quickly. We analyse the relationship between the slope of ramp and the pushing force and investigate the changing of injured situations with the changing of the slope of ramp. When the number of pedestrians and the ramp angle arrive at certain critical points, the Domino effect will be simulated by this proposed model.