Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mathematical Problems in Engineering
Volume 2014, Article ID 734016, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/734016
Research Article

Simplified Reliability Estimation for Optimum Strengthening Ratio of 30-Year-Old Double T-Beam Railway Bridge by NSM Techniques

1Department of Civil Engineering, Kangwon National University, 1 Joonang-ro, Kangwon, Samcheok 245-711, Republic of Korea
2Department of Civil Engineering, Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology, 150 Chilam-dong, Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-758, Republic of Korea
3Research Division, G3Way Co., Yangjae-dong, Seocho, Seoul 20-32, Republic of Korea

Received 25 November 2013; Revised 3 March 2014; Accepted 4 March 2014; Published 11 May 2014

Academic Editor: Ting-Hua Yi

Copyright © 2014 Minkwan Ju et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. FHWA Bridge Programs NBI data, 2009, http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/bridge/nbi.
  2. ACI Committee 440, Guide for the Design and Construction of Externally Bonded FRP Systems for Strengthening Concrete Structures (ACI 440.2R-08), American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Mich, USA, 2008.
  3. J. M. de Sena Cruz and J. A. O. De Barros, “Bond between near-surface mounted carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer laminate strips and concrete,” Journal of Composites for Construction, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 519–527, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. T. Hassan and S. Rizkalla, “Investigation of bond in concrete structures strengthened with near surface mounted carbon fiber reinforced polymer strips,” Journal of Composites for Construction, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 248–257, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. M. Soliman, E. El-Salakawy, and B. Benmokrane, “Flexural behavior of concrete beams strengthened with near surface mounted FRP bars,” in Proceedings of 4th International conference on FRP composites in civil engineering (CICE '08), 2008.
  6. J. P. Firmo, J. R. Correia, and P. França, “Fire behaviour of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with CFRP laminates: protection systems with insulation of the anchorage zones,” Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 1545–1556, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. M. Soliman, E. El-Salakawy, and B. Benmokrane, “Bond performance of near-surface-mounted FRP bars,” Journal of Composites for Construction, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 103–111, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. Hassan and S. Rizkalla, “Flexural strengthening of prestressed bridge slabs with FRP systems,” PCI Journal, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 76–93, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. R. Yost, S. P. Gross, and D. W. Dinehart, “Near surface mounted CFRP reinforcement for structural retrofit of concrete flexural members,” in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Advanced Composite Materials in Bridges and Structures, Calgary, Canada, 2004.
  10. Z. He and F. Qiu, “Probabilistic assessment on flexural capacity of GFRP-reinforced concrete beams designed by guideline ACI 440.1R-06,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 1663–1670, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. Z. He and L. Jiang, “Flexural reliability assessment of FRP-strengthened reinforced concrete beams designed by Chinese CECS-146 Guideline,” Pacific Science Review, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 123–133, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  12. International Organization for Standardization, “Determination of tensile properties-part 5: test conditions for unidirectional fibre reinforced plastic composites,” ISO 527-5, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  13. B. H. Oh, C. K. Koh, S. W. Baik, H. J. Lee, and S. H. Han, “Realistic reliability analysis of reinforced concrete structures,” Journal of Korea Society of Civil Engineering, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 121–133, 1993 (Korean). View at Google Scholar
  14. Steel bars for concrete reinforcement, KS D 3504, Korean Industrial Standards, 2011 (Korean).
  15. KR Network, Design Specification of Railway: Railway Bridge, Korea Rail Network Authority, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 2004, (Korean).
  16. S. K. Hwang, J. T. Oh, J. S. Lee et al., Performance Enhancement of Railway System-Track & Civil: Development of the Design Specification for Improving Dynamic Characteristics of Railway Bridges, Korea Railway Research Institute, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 2003, (Korean).
  17. H. S. Shang, T. H. Yi, and L. S. Yang, “Experimental study on the compressive strength of big mobility concrete with nondestructive testing method,” Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 2012, Article ID 345214, 6 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. T. H. Yi, H. N. Li, and H. M. Sun, “Multi-stage structural damage diagnosis method based on “energy-damage” theory,” Smart Structures And Systems, vol. 12, no. 3-4, pp. 345–361, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  19. H. S. Shang, T. H. Yi, and X. X. Guo, “Study on strength and ultrasonic of air-entrained concrete and plain concrete in cold environment,” Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 2014, Article ID 706986, 7 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. Korea High Speed Rail Construction Authority (KHRC), “Bridge design manual (BRDM),” Technical Report, Korea High Speed Rail Construction Authority (KHRC), Pusan, Public of Korea, 1995, (Korean). View at Google Scholar
  21. International Union of Railway, UIC Code 776-1R: Loads to Be Considered in Railway Bridge Design, International Union of Railway, Paris, France, 4th edition, 1994.
  22. M. Abdessemed, S. Kenai, A. Bali, and A. Kibboua, “Dynamic analysis of a bridge repaired by CFRP: experimental and numerical modelling,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 1270–1276, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. G. Zanardo, H. Hao, Y. Xia, and A. J. Deeks, “Stiffness assessment through modal analysis of an RC slab bridge before and after strengthening,” Journal of Bridge Engineering, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 590–601, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Korea Infrastructure Safety and Technology corporation (KISTEC), A Database of Maintenance History, Korea Infrastructure Safety and Technology corporation (KISTEC), Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea, 2003, (Korean).
  25. MIDAS IT, MIDAS Civil Program Manual, MIDAS IT, Gyeonggi, Republic of Korea, 2009.
  26. S. W. Tabsh and A. S. Nowak, “Reliability of highway girder bridges,” Journal of Structural Engineering ASCE, vol. 117, no. 8, pp. 2372–2388, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. H. N. Cho, K. H. Kwak, and S. J. Lee, “Reliability-based safety and capacity evaluation of high-speed railway bridges,” Journal of Computational Structural Engineering Institute in Korea, COSEIK, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 133–143, 1997 (Korean). View at Google Scholar
  28. ACI Committee 440, Guide for the Design and Construction of Externally Bonded FRP Systems for Strengthening Concrete Structures, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Mich, USA, 2008.
  29. L. C. Bank, Composites for Construction-Structural Design with FRP Materials, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2006.
  30. R. Rackwitz and B. Flessler, “Structural reliability under combined random load sequences,” Computers and Structures, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 489–494, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at Scopus
  31. H. N. Cho, H. H. Choi, S. Y. Lee, and J. W. Sun, “Methodology for reliability-based assessment of capacity-rating of plate girder railway bridges using ambient measurement data,” Journal of Korea Society of Steel Construction, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 187–196, 2003 (Korean). View at Google Scholar
  32. B. Ellingwood, Reliability Bases of Load and Resistance Factors for Reinforced Concrete Design, National Bureau of Standards Building Science Series 110, Washington, DC, USA, 1978.
  33. US Department of Commrece/National Bureau of Standards, “Development of a probability based load criteria for American National Standard A58,” NBS Special Publication 577, U.S. Department of Commrece/National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md, USA, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  34. J. A. O. Barros and A. S. Fortes, “Flexural strengthening of concrete beams with CFRP laminates bonded into slits,” Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 471–480, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. H. Kim, H. K. Cho, H. W. Bae, and H. S. Park, “Reliability evaluation of structures-a case of reinforced concrete buildings under dead, live, and wind loads,” Technical Report, Korea Institute of Construction Technology, 1989, (Korean). View at Google Scholar
  36. J. G. MacGregor, “Load and resistance factors for concrete design,” Journal of the American Concrete Institute, vol. 80, no. 4, pp. 279–287, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. M. Kulicki, D. R. Mertz, and W. G. Wassef, “LRFD Design of highway bridges,” NHI Course 13061, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, USA, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  38. AASHTO, Bridge Design Practice, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC, USA, 2011.
  39. A. S. Nowak and A. M. Rakoczy, “Reliability-based calibration of design code for concrete structures (ACI 318),” in Proceeding of the Anais do 54 Congress Brasileiro do Concreto CBC2012-54CBC, pp. 1–12, 2012.