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Mathematical Problems in Engineering
Volume 2014, Article ID 801628, 11 pages
Research Article

Vehicle Velocity and Roll Angle Estimation with Road and Friction Adaptation for Four-Wheel Independent Drive Electric Vehicle

Department of Control Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China

Received 30 April 2014; Accepted 7 October 2014; Published 22 October 2014

Academic Editor: Bo Shen

Copyright © 2014 Linhui Zhao and Zhiyuan Liu. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Vehicle velocity and roll angle are important information for active safety control systems of four-wheel independent drive electric vehicle. In order to obtain robustness estimation of vehicle velocity and roll angle, a novel method is proposed based on vehicle dynamics and the measurement information provided by the sensors equipped in modern cars. The method is robust with respect to different road and friction conditions. Firstly, the dynamic characteristics of four-wheel independent drive electric vehicle are analyzed, and a four-degree-of-freedom nonlinear dynamic model of vehicle and a tire longitudinal dynamic equation are established. The relationship between the longitudinal and lateral friction forces is derived based on Dugoff tire model. The unknown input reconstruction technique of sliding mode observer is used to achieve longitudinal tire friction force estimation. A simple observer is designed for the estimation of the roll angle of the vehicle. And then using the relationship, the estimated longitudinal friction forces and roll angle, a sliding mode observer for vehicle velocity estimation is provided, which does not need to know the tire-road friction coefficient and road angles. Finally, the proposed method is evaluated experimentally under a variety of maneuvers and road conditions.