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Mathematical Problems in Engineering
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 853821, 13 pages
Research Article

Cooperative Transmission in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Carrier Frequency Offsets: A Double-Differential Approach

College of Communications Engineering, PLA University of Science and Technology, No. 2 Biaoying, Yudao Street, Qinhuai District, Nanjing 210007, China

Received 18 January 2014; Accepted 10 March 2014; Published 3 April 2014

Academic Editor: Linying Xiang

Copyright © 2014 Kun Zhao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


As a result of the rapidly increasing mobility of sensor nodes, mobile wireless sensor networks (MWSNs) would be subject to multiple carrier frequency offsets (MCFOs), which result in time-varying channels and drastically degrade the network performance. To enhance the performance of such MWSNs, we propose a relay selection (RS) based double-differential (DD) cooperative transmission scheme, termed RSDDCT, in which the best relay sensor node is selected to forward the source sensor node’s signals to the destination sensor node with the detect-and-forward (DetF) protocol. Assuming a Rayleigh fading environment, first, exact closed-form expressions for the outage probability and average bit error rate (BER) of the RSDDCT scheme are derived. Then, simple and informative asymptotic outage probability and average BER expressions at the large signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime are presented, which reveal that the RSDDCT scheme can achieve full diversity. Furthermore, the optimum power allocation strategy in terms of minimizing the average BER is investigated, and simple analytical solutions are obtained. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed RSDDCT scheme can achieve excellent performance over fading channels in the presence of unknown random MCFOs. It is also shown that the proposed optimum power allocation strategy offers substantial average BER performance improvement over the equal power allocation strategy.