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Mathematical Problems in Engineering
Volume 2015, Article ID 793697, 15 pages
Research Article

Detecting Copy Directions among Programs Using Extreme Learning Machines

College of Information Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Liaoning 110819, China

Received 21 August 2014; Revised 10 November 2014; Accepted 10 November 2014

Academic Editor: Tao Chen

Copyright © 2015 Bin Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Because of the complexity of software development, some software developers may plagiarize source code from other projects or open source software in order to shorten development cycle. Many methods have been proposed to detect plagiarism among programs based on the program dependence graph, a graph representation of a program. However, to our best knowledge, existing works only detect similarity between programs without detecting copy direction among them. By employing extreme learning machine (ELM), we construct feature space for describing features of every two programs with possible plagiarism relationship. Such feature space could be large and time consuming, so we propose approaches to construct a small feature space by pruning isolated control statements and removable statements from each program to accelerate both training and classification time. We also analyze the features of data dependencies between any original program and its copy program, and based on it we propose a feedback framework to find a good feature space that can achieve both accuracy and efficiency. We conducted a thorough experimental study of this technique on real C programs collected from the Internet. The experimental results show the high accuracy and efficiency of our ELM-based approaches.