Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Mathematical Problems in Engineering
Volume 2015, Article ID 905761, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/905761
Research Article

A Lower Extremity Exoskeleton: Human-Machine Coupled Modeling, Robust Control Design, Simulation, and Overload-Carrying Experiment

1School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China
2Department of Fluid Control & Automation, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China
3School of Mechatronics Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China

Received 4 November 2014; Revised 8 May 2015; Accepted 10 May 2015

Academic Editor: Stanisław Migorski

Copyright © 2015 Qing Guo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Ackerman, The Report of Production Display for “HULC” Made in Lockheed Martin, Montgomery County, Md, USA, 2010, http://www.lockheedmartin.com.
  2. Z. X. Wang, “Raytheon launched XOS2 second-generation exoskeleton device,” Light Weapons, pp. 24–44, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  3. J. R. Steger, A design and control methodology for human exoskeletons [Ph.D. dissertation], Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Calif, USA, 2006.
  4. J. F. Veneman, R. Ekkelenkamp, R. Kruidhof, F. C. T. van der Helm, and H. van der Kooij, “Design of a series elastic- and Bowden cable-based actuation system for use as torque-actuator in exoskeleton-type training,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 9th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR '05), pp. 496–499, Chicago, Ill, USA, July 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. Verge, “The report of ‘Hercule exoskeleton can help a regular human carry up to 220 pounds’,” 2012, http://www.theverge.com/2012/2/22/2815704/hercule-exoskeleton-human-carry-220-pounds.
  6. C. G. Atkeson, J. G. Hale, F. Pollick et al., “Using humanoid robots to study human behavior,” IEEE Intelligent Systems and Their Applications, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 46–55, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. Q. Guo, H. Zhou, and D. Jiang, “Coordinated control method of the lower extremity exoskeleton based on human electromechanical coupling,” in Social Robotics: 4th International Conference, ICSR 2012, Chengdu, China, October 29–31, 2012. Proceedings, vol. 7621 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 650–659, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. Q. Li, M. Kong, Z. Du, L. Sun, and D. Wang, “Interactive rehabilitation exercise control strategy for 5-DOF upper limb rehabilitation arm,” Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering, vol. 44, no. 9, pp. 169–176, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Z. Y. Yang, Y. S. Zhang, W. J. Gu et al., “Bone clothing sensitivity amplification control,” Computer Simulation, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 177–180, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  10. H. Cao, X. W. Meng, Z. Y. Ling et al., “Two-legged robot exoskeleton plantar pressure measurement system,” Journ of Sensors and Actuators, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 326–330, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  11. R. Fales and A. Kelkar, “Robust control design for a wheel loader using H and feedback linearization based methods,” ISA Transactions, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 312–320, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. G. P. Liu and S. Daley, “Optimal-tuning PID controller design in the frequency domain with application to a rotary hydraulic system,” Control Engineering Practice, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 821–830, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. I. Boiko, “Variable-structure PID controller for level process,” Control Engineering Practice, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 700–707, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Moradi, “Self-tuning PID controller to three-axis stabilization of a satellite with unknown parameters,” International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics, vol. 49, pp. 50–56, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. O. Cerman and P. Hušek, “Adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control for electro-hydraulic servo mechanism,” Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 39, no. 11, pp. 10269–10277, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. Guan and S. X. Pan, “Adaptive sliding mode control of electro-hydraulic system with nonlinear unknown parameters,” Control Engineering Practice, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 1275–1284, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. H. Sha, V. B. Bajic, and H. Y. Yang, “New model and sliding mode control of hydraulic elevator velocity tracking system,” Simulation Practice and Theory, vol. 9, no. 6–8, pp. 365–385, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. W. Wang, Z. X. Jiao, S. Wu, and Y. X. Shang, “Nonlinear adaptive torque control of electro-hydraulic load system with external active motion disturbance,” Mechatronics, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 32–40, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. I. Ursu, A. Toader, A. Halanay, and S. Balea, “New stabilization and tracking control laws for electrohydraulic servomechanisms,” European Journal of Control, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 65–80, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  20. V. Milić, Ž. Ŝitum, and M. Essert, “Robust H position control synthesis of an electro-hydraulic servo system,” ISA Transactions, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 535–542, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. F. L. Weng, Y. C. Ding, and M. K. Tang, “LPV model-based robust controller design of electro-hydraulic servo systems,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 15, pp. 421–425, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. X. Song, Y. Wang, and Z. Sun, “Robust stabilizer design for linear time-varying internal model based output regulation and its application to an electrohydraulic system,” Automatica, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 1128–1134, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  23. R. Fales and A. Kelkar, “Robust control design for a wheel loader using mixed sensitivity H-infinity and feedback linearization based methods,” in Proceedings of the American Control Conference (ACC '05), pp. 4381–4386, Portland, Ore, USA, June 2005. View at Scopus
  24. S. Kawamura and M. Svinin, Advances in Robot Control: From Everyday Physics to Human-like Movements, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2006.
  25. A. Akers, M. Gassman, and R. Smith, Hydraulic Power System Analysis, Taylor & Francis Group, 2006.
  26. A. Alleyne and R. Liu, “A simplified approach to force control for electro-hydraulic systems,” Control Engineering Practice, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 1347–1356, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. W.-M. Lu, K. M. Zhou, and J. C. Doyle, “Stabilization of uncertain linear systems: an LFT approach,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 50–65, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  28. M. K. H. Fan, A. L. Tits, and J. C. Doyle, “Robustness in the presence of mixed parametric uncertainty and unmodeled dynamics,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 25–38, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  29. D. W. Gu, P. H. Petkov, and M. M. Konstantinov, Robust control design with MATLAB, Springer Press, 2005.
  30. J. C. Doyle, K. Glover, P. P. Khargonekar, and B. A. Francis, “State-space solutions to standard H2 and H control problems,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 831–847, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  31. G. J. Balas and J. C. Doyle, “Robustness and performance trade-offs in control design for flexible structures,” IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 352–361, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. Packard, M. K. H. Fan, and J. C. Doyle, “A power method for the structured singular value,” in Proceedings of the 27th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, pp. 2132–2137, Chicago, Ill, USA, December 1988. View at Scopus
  33. W. Gawronski, “Balanced systems and structures: reduction, assignment, and perturbations,” in Control and Dynamic Systems, vol. 54, pp. 373–415, 1992. View at Google Scholar