Table 3: Prediction error statistics of five models during different periods.

Error indicesModels
KFNRKF-ECCKF-HDKF-BCNR

MAPE (%)
 Morning peak35.510.412.910.28.2
 Nonpeak39.715.727.216.413.4
 Evening peak36.93.523.36.04.9
 Whole day38.819.727.820.518.1
MPE (%)
 Morning peak−35.5−3.3−8.24.50.8
 Nonpeak−39.7−9.3−26.6−0.8−4.9
 Evening peak−36.9−1.6−23.32.60.6
 Whole day−33.5−3.4−14.97.54.1
RMSE
 Morning peak33.411.313.69.97.6
 Nonpeak16.98.212.77.36.9
 Evening peak134.914.085.122.521.1
 Whole day52.010.233.011.510.2
NRMS (%)
 Morning peak38.413.015.711.48.7
 Nonpeak44.421.533.319.118.1
 Evening peak38.84.024.56.56.1
 Whole day60.211.838.213.311.9