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Mathematical Problems in Engineering
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 5907876, 21 pages
Research Article

An Evacuation Model for Passenger Ships That Includes the Influence of Obstacles in Cabins

1College of Ship Building, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, China
2College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, China
3Shanghai Merchant Ship Design and Research Institute, Shanghai, China
4Dalian Neusoft University of Information, Dalian, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Baocheng Ni

Received 28 February 2017; Revised 19 August 2017; Accepted 18 September 2017; Published 26 October 2017

Academic Editor: Mirko Viroli

Copyright © 2017 Baocheng Ni et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Passenger behavior and ship environment are the key factors affecting evacuation efficiency. However, current studies ignore the interior layout of passenger ship cabins and treat the cabins as empty rooms. To investigate the influence of obstacles (e.g., tables and stools) on cabin evacuation, we propose an agent-based social force model for advanced evacuation analysis of passenger ships; this model uses a goal-driven submodel to determine a plan and an extended social force submodel to govern the movement of passengers. The extended social force submodel considers the interaction forces between the passengers, crew, and obstacles and minimises the range of these forces to improve computational efficiency. We drew the following conclusions based on a series of evacuation simulations conducted in this study: (1) the proposed model endows the passenger with the behaviors of bypassing and crossing obstacles, (2) funnel-shaped exits from cabins can improve evacuation efficiency, and (3) as the exit angle increases, the evacuation time also increases. These findings offer ship designers some insight towards increasing the safety of large passenger ships.