Table 1: Experimental program of the model tests.

NumberModel pileLoading conditionThermal condition (°C)Test ModelVelocity of water (L/min)

(1)RPEPUntil failureRoom temperatureL
(2)PEP1Until failure35HL
(3)PEP2Until failure50HL
(4)PEP3Until failure5HL
(5)PEP150H5
(6)PEP150H15
(7)PEP235H5
(8)PEP235H15
(9)PEP35C5
(10)RPEPworking load35L-H-R-C-R5