Mathematical Problems in Engineering / 2018 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Influence of the Temporomandibular Joint in the Estimation of Bone Density in the Mandible through a Bone Remodelling Model

Table 1

Forces exerted by masticatory muscles. Only the orientation of the forces of the right side are given (symmetry with respect to the sagittal plane was assumed). The magnitude of the muscle force peak in CO for the ipsilateral (I) and contralateral (C) sides are also provided. The +x-axis is directed anteriorly, the +y-axis rightward, and the +z-axis downward. CP: closing phase, OP: opening phase. 1: length with the mouth closed [27]. 2: Korioth et al. [28] for the jaw closing muscles. 3: van Eijden et al. [27] for the jaw opening muscles. 4: Nelson [29] for the jaw closing muscles. 5: proportional to the values adopted by Hannam et al. [12] for the jaw opening muscles.

Muscle Portion Lengthcos-y2,3cos-z2,3Activity peak
IC

Masseter Superficial48.00.4190.207-0.8850.560.20190.4
Deep25.7-0.3580.546-0.7580.560.2081.6

Temporalis Anterior51.90.0440.149-0.9880.650.51158.0
Middle52.7-0.50.221-0.8370.600.5395.6
Posterior52.9-0.8550.208-0.4740.540.5475.6

Medial pterygoid42.70.372-0.486-0.7910.970.47174.8

Lateral pterygoid (CP) Inferior32.60.757-0.630.1740.500.3666.9

Lateral pterygoid (OP) Inferior32.60.757-0.630.1740.100.1066.9
Superior31.30.645-0.761-0.0740.0390.02628.8

Anterior belly digastric43.20.0530.815-0.57640.0

Geniohyoid40.0-0.9950.1030.01838.8

Mylohyoid Anterior23.0-0.176-0.8310.52863.6
Posterior42.6-0.223-0.6160.75621.2

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