Advanced Aspects of Computational Intelligence and Applications of Fuzzy Logic and Soft ComputingView this Special Issue
Distribution Technique of Green Material List for High-Rise Building Engineering in BIM Technology
The current green material list allocation technique for high-rise building engineering has the issue of an unsatisfactory green material selection procedure, which results in excessive building energy consumption. Based on BIM technology, a green material list allocation technique for high-rise building engineering is proposed. Using the task-scheduling algorithm, extract the structural characteristics of high-rise buildings, select the appropriate basic form, optimize the green material selection process in conjunction with material demand, construct the building carbon-trading framework with BIM technology, simplify the construction process, adjust the physical host state, and design the list allocation mode. The average building energy consumption of the green material list allocation technique of high-rise building engineering in this study and the other two ways is 189.54 (kWh), 223.06 (kWh), and 232.68 (kWh), respectively, according to the experimental data. It has been demonstrated that the green material list allocation technique of high-rise construction engineering, when linked with BIM Technology, is more practicable.
BIM is the abbreviation of “building information model.” BIM technology refers to taking the basic components in construction projects as design elements [1–3]. Geometric data, physical attributes, material information, and other associated information describing component pieces are grouped organically to generate a database that integrates all aspects of building information. The parameter information of the model’s many components is not an isolated piece of data; they also have a geographical and logical link with one another. They create a full and hierarchical building information system [4, 5] as an integrated element of the BIM model, a virtual digital building. BIM technology is a novel concept in ongoing growth, and its definition evolves in tandem with technological advancements. As a result, although there are numerous variations of the definition and interpretation of BIM, the definition of BIM is primarily represented in the fact that BIM is used across the whole construction project life cycle [6–8]. It combines the data from all of the building’s components. It is not confined to the development of a building model, nor does it apply to a certain kind or type of software. BIM is not the same as conventional working methods. After the “drawing board” technology shift in the twentieth century, BIM technology is producing an irresistible information-based digital revolution in the engineering construction sector, which is another important technological development in the construction industry. BIM technology was first proposed in the United States at the end of the twentieth century, and then developed rapidly in Europe, the United States, and Asian neighboring countries such as Japan. According to relevant statistics, more than 80% of the top 300 enterprises in the US construction industry use BIM technology for architectural design. Countries such as Europe and the United States have also issued their own BIM technology implementation standards. Some large domestic design institutes have consciously trained employees on BIM technology and established their own BIM technology team. At the same time, in order to solve the problem of lack of BIM technicians in China, technical consulting business and technical education systems related to BIM Technology have also appeared one after another. Furthermore, China is still in the early stages of socialism. The state concentrates on diverse large-scale infrastructure building to fulfill the rising demands of people’s quality of life, allowing BIM technology to have a wide range of applications. As a result, BIM technology has a bright future in China. Green construction examines each construction and production link from a “sustainable” perspective throughout the high-rise building construction process, applying the “green method” to the entire project, including the preliminary contents of improving construction site management, safe production, civilized construction, standardized operation development, and so on as well as the use of green building technologies and the selection of green building materials. The development of the above work will usually bring cost expenditure different from the traditional construction mode, which will change the content of construction cost. Aiming at the green construction of reinforced concrete high-rise buildings, a thorough comparison with traditional construction, it is necessary to summarize the main influencing factors of green construction cost change of high-rise buildings and study them by classification. At present, the academic research data on the combination of BIM technology and green material list distribution of high-rise buildings are not very comprehensive and needs to be continuously improved.
2. Allocation Method of Green Material List for High-Rise Building Engineering Based on BIM Technology
2.1. Extracting Structural Features of High-Rise Buildings
High-rise buildings have brought many problems with the urban environment and social resources due to their large-scale and complex functions, which have a great negative impact on urban resources and environment. Therefore, from the perspective of people’s demand for the environment, resource conservation, harmony and sustainability between man and nature, green construction measures of “material saving, energy saving, water saving, land saving and environmental protection” should be taken in the construction of high-rise buildings, so as to promote the healthy and harmonious development of high-rise buildings. According to the number of building floors, the types are shown in Figure 1:
It can be seen from Figure 1 that high-rise buildings are suitable for high-rise civil building structures with ten floors or more or with a building height of more than 28 meters, nonseismic design, and seismic fortification intensity of 6 ∼ 9 [9, 10]. The majority of high-rise buildings are made of reinforced concrete and steel, with a minor number of masonry structures. Reinforced concrete structures have a lot of stiffness, a lot of strength, a lot of fire resistance, a lot of earthquake resistance, and a lot of construction materials. It requires less steel and is less expensive than steel structures, but it has a considerable weight. In recent years, advances in lightweight aggregate concrete, high-strength concrete, and prestressed reinforced concrete technology have allowed reinforced concrete structures to lower their self-weight and achieve more impressive technical and economic results. As can be seen, reinforced concrete structures play a significant role in high-rise structures and are commonly employed. High-rise structures should be able to withstand appropriate vertical and horizontal loads while in operation. It is required to fully consider various stress conditions of the structure during construction and material selection, ensure that the structure has sufficient stiffness, strength, and stability, and strictly control the horizontal displacement of the structure. In high-rise building structures, the horizontal load presents marginal increasing effect with the increase of height, and the damage force of horizontal load and earthquake is large [11, 12]. At present, there are four common structural systems of high-rise buildings, as shown in Figure 2:
According to Figure 2, the common structural systems of high-rise buildings mainly include frame structure system, shear wall structure system, frame shear wall structure system, and tube structure system . During construction, the seismic performance of the built high-rise buildings shall be fully guaranteed to ensure the normal use and safety of the building structure. In addition, a certain ductility is also necessary to ensure that under the action of earthquake, even if a part of the building is in the yield stage, it should also have a certain plastic deformation capacity. The energy generated by seismic force can be effectively absorbed through the plasticity of the structure, so that the structure will not collapse as a whole. The overall durability is an important guarantee for the service life of high-rise buildings. Through the basement and foundation, all horizontal and vertical loads of high-rise structures are eventually transferred to the foundation. To completely assure the longevity and foundation firmness of high-rise building structures, many influencing elements should be thoroughly evaluated and suitable foundation forms should be adopted. Buildings with more than 10 stories, dozens of floors, or even hundreds of floors are known as high-rise buildings. Its construction area is substantially bigger than that of typical multistory structures. Each multistory structure has an average size of around 2000 m2, whereas each high-rise building has an average area of about 12,000 m2. The engineering amount per unit floor space rises dramatically, and the building site’s plane layout complexity rises in tandem. As a result, when planning the construction of high-rise buildings, it is necessary to minimize temporary facilities, reduce on-site storage of building materials, equipment, and products, and stage the construction site layout according to the construction progress in order to save construction land. Furthermore, statistical data research shows that the average cost of high-rise structures is almost 60% greater than that of multistory buildings. To effectively construct high-rise structures with large quantities on a restricted construction site, it is vital to manage the construction scientifically and integrate innovative construction technologies to eliminate needless waste . Generally, the average construction period of high-rise buildings is about two years. If the construction unit wants to reasonably arrange the construction, it must make full use of the time of the whole year and make reasonable deployment in order to shorten the construction period. In addition, the construction personnel must be fully prepared to successfully complete the construction in rainy and winter periods. The unreasonable extension of the construction period will lead to the increase of the direct cost of the project and the occurrence of claim expenses. It is of great significance to reasonably arrange the construction in winter and rainy season. The above characteristics of high-rise building construction determine that various construction schemes should be optimized in the construction process to minimize dust, light, noise, sewage, and other pollution. Reduce solid construction waste such as concrete, mortar, brick, sand, tile, and stone. At the same time, it also supports the development of a circular economy, responds to the national sustainable development strategy, and truly achieves energy saving, material saving, water saving, land saving, and environmental protection. Based on this, the steps of extracting structural features of high-rise buildings are completed.
2.2. Optimizing Green Material Selection Process
Green materials, also known as ecological materials or environmental coordination materials, refer to a kind of materials that have the least negative impact on energy and ecological environment in the whole life cycle of products from manufacturing. There are many factors to be considered in the selection of green materials, such as material performance, processing technology, environmental requirements, economic cost. There may be contradictory relations between some factors. The optimal selection of green materials can be determined only when all factors are coordinated to the best effect. The factors and specific contents to be considered are shown in Table 1.
It can be seen from Table 1 that the factors to be considered in the selection of construction machinery parts and materials also interact with each other, and the factors affect and contact each other to form a complex relationship network. Green material selection is to reduce the threat to the environment in the whole life cycle of the product, maximize the product benefit, and comprehensively consider the green performance of the material on the premise of meeting the use function of the product. It is the development direction of engineering green material selection. The following guidelines will guide the selection of green materials for the project. Mechanical pieces are combined and processed into products, using energy and polluting the environment. Consumers may use and fix the goods until the mechanical components break down, at which point they must be discarded. The trash may be remanufactured or recycled before being returned to nature, but this requires energy. The trash is returned to nature for recycling after treatment, and new resources are created via deterioration and regeneration. In the mechanical design of mechanical parts, considering the comprehensive properties of mechanical parts materials, including mechanical properties, process properties, economic properties and green properties, an optimal green material is selected from the alternative materials by using the engineering green material selection method, which not only meets the use requirements of parts but also has less environmental pollution and saves resources, The selection steps for green materials are shown in Figure 3.
It can be seen from Figure 3 that the cost of purchasing raw materials is the main cost of processing into products. The stable performance, long service life, and easy processing of raw materials play a key role in reducing the total cost of parts. In the above flow chart, the weighted decision matrix needs to be normalized, and the calculation formula is
In formula (1), represents the data set, represents the decision element, and represents the distance from the decision data to the data set. On the basis of formula (1), calculate the ideal solution and negative ideal solution in the decision matrix. The expression formula is
In formulas (2) and (3), represents the decision objective, represents any constant, and represents two adjacent elements respectively. Using Euclidean norm as the criterion for measuring distance, the distance expression formula of ideal solution and negative ideal solution is obtained:
In formulas (4) and (5), represents the decision objective, represents any constant, and represents two adjacent elements respectively, in the whole process of part design, manufacturing, and scrapping. The green performance of building materials refers to raw materials with low-energy consumption and less-ecological harm [15, 16]. The material has good green properties, which are conducive to improving the green of the product. Energy consumption, pollution, recycling, and reuse are all examples of green features of materials. The current green manufacturing development trend aims to decrease pollution and use renewable energy. The environmental performance of raw materials is an important element to consider when choosing materials. Raw materials that are environmentally friendly, do no damage, are recyclable, and use less energy in the manufacturing process should be chosen as much as feasible. Mechanical components’ raw materials should meet particular mechanical, chemical, and physical properties standards. The operating circumstances and failure types of components must be considered when determining the mechanical performance requirements of raw materials. Mechanical components function in a variety of environments, each with its own set of operating conditions and stress levels. To become a certified mechanical product, each item must go through a number of processing steps. As a result, the quality, cost, and efficiency of mechanical products are directly influenced by the materials processing process performance. At the same time, material process performance is influenced by material qualities, processing pathways, and other variables. Furthermore, various pieces demand varied levels of process performance. They examine the cutting performance, heat treatment performance, forging performance, heat treatment performance, and other indicators that the parts need, which was favorable to the processing of the parts, based on the service requirements and operating circumstances of the parts. For example, the materials as engineering components should have good welding performance and cold deformation performance. Cast parts have reliable overall performance. In order to make the selected engineering green materials have superior process performance, materials with simple process shall be selected as far as possible, and the material and process requirements and the processes of each process shall be connected and combined with each other. The economic performance of materials is an important factor determining whether to choose a certain material finally. Lower product cost is conducive to improving the market competitiveness of enterprises [17, 18]. The economic performance of mechanical parts, including the cost of purchasing raw materials, the total cost of processing finished products, and the cost of recycling after product scrapping. Raw materials are first extracted from nature and formed into parts after a series of processing. This process will consume energy, produce waste, and cause pollution.
2.3. Building Carbon Trading Framework Based on BIM Technology
BIM is the digital expression of the physical and functional characteristics of facilities. It contains all the information of facilities, including the description of three-dimensional geometric information and topological relationship of facilities, as well as the description of complete engineering information, such as structure type, object name, building materials, engineering performance design, and other information; construction progress, construction cost, construction quality, and construction information such as personnel, materials and machines; project safety performance, material durability, and other maintenance information; and engineering logical relationship between objects, etc. The completeness of information is also reflected in the process of creating BIM model. In this process, all stages of early planning, design, construction and operation, and maintenance of facilities are connected, and the information generated in each stage is stored in the BIM model, so that the information of BIM model comes from a single engineering data source, including all information of facilities. All information in the BIM model is stored in the database in digital form to facilitate updating and sharing [19, 20]. Visualization is based on BIM technology to carry out building design, pipeline collision inspection, and simulated construction in a three-dimensional information environment . The carbon-trading system is brought into the construction business, taking use of the inherent benefit of structures’ immobility. Because buildings are immovable by nature, it is difficult to recognize the difficulties of carbon leakage and carbon transfer that industrial control objects confront throughout the phases of construction, operation, and usage, in order to improve the efficiency of carbon trading in the construction sector. To make the building’s carbon emissions satisfy the baseline standards, the energy structure must be transformed and the architectural design scheme must be improved. We can only really decrease overall carbon emissions from the construction sector and foster the growth of building carbon trade by lowering building carbon emissions at the source. They must purchase carbon emissions directly from the carbon market if the project emits more carbon dioxide than the norm, in order to stimulate the adoption of carbon trading in the building sector. The frame diagram of energy conservation and carbon reduction of high-rise buildings is shown in Figure 4:
As can be seen from Figure 4, due to the long service life of the building and the relatively short construction period, it has the characteristics of high intensity and centralized emission. The important control stage to realize the low-carbon of unit projects is the design process of low-carbon buildings. Design plays a decisive role in building low-carbon. Only by reducing building carbon emissions from the design stage can we really reduce the total carbon emissions of the construction industry. During project construction, energy-saving, and efficient and environment-friendly construction machinery and equipment recommended by the state and industry shall be preferred. During construction organization design, the operation sequence, and construction working face shall be arranged scientifically. The same type of construction machinery includes different models and specifications. The higher the models and specifications, the more energy and fuel consumed in the use process, and the greater the carbon emission of each shift. Construction companies should prioritize smaller model and specification construction equipment on the basis of scientific and reasonable usage when choosing construction machinery, not only to guarantee work efficiency but also to decrease construction machinery’s carbon emissions. Continuously enhance the management of construction site machinery, equipment, and users to guarantee the logical use and allocation of corresponding machinery and equipment, decreasing waste caused by idle and idling, and improving usage efficiency while lowering energy consumption. We should also focus on the growth of wind, hydroelectric, and solar energy, as well as the replacement of fossil fuels with green and renewable energy. The building method that uses the least amount of energy is recommended. The more energy is required during construction and the more carbon emissions are created, the greater the volume, the higher the height, the more complicated the technology, and the more diverse the functions are. Furthermore, not only does night construction diminish efficiency, but it also requires a lot of temporary lighting and uses more energy. On the basis of considering the current construction technology and process, the construction time shall be arranged scientifically to reduce night operation and reduce building carbon emissions. Based on the above description, complete the steps of building carbon-trading framework.
2.4. Task Scheduling Algorithm Design List Allocation Mode
If only the energy consumption optimization problem of scheduling is considered, network congestion or task loss will occur in the execution of scheduling algorithm. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the task allocation mode combined with the working principle of task-scheduling algorithm. When calculating the bill of quantities of the project, it is necessary to have sufficient and complete construction drawings, and complete the preparation of the list according to the drawings, so the calculated carbon emission of the construction project is more accurate. Strengthen the low-carbon control of the construction process, ensure that the construction carbon emission of each construction process meets the requirements, and ensure that the products completed in each construction process meet the relevant quality standards. The task-scheduling algorithm based on task timeout tolerance optimization optimizes the node resource utilization. By increasing the task timeout tolerance value, the parallelism of task execution is increased, the utilization of energy resources per unit time is increased, and the total energy consumption is optimized. To maximize the resource utilization of the nodes participating in the service, the energy consumption difference is calculated as follows:
In formula (6), represents the network load function, represents the random task, and represents the number of data conversion between the specified task and the random task, respectively. In order to solve the network load pressure, an optimal scheduling set is proposed, which is expressed as follows:
In formula (7), represents all nodes participating in the service, and represents the load degree factor. Therefore, by considering these factors, we set the timeout tolerance function of task execution, add the level of task service, and specified time length to the function. Then the calculation formula of energy consumption difference is
In formula (8), represents node power, represents execution time, and represents total energy consumption. When random tasks are scheduled to run in a list allocation mode, the energy consumption is made up of all nodes in the inventory allocation, and each node’s energy consumption is proportional to the amount of power it consumes and the average execution time. These vast-scale data centers are, however, dispersed owing to the huge scope of inventory distribution centers. These data centers are ready to handle the influx of users. They are either inactive over an extended period of time or execute jobs that are underutilized. However, since the power of idle nodes is half or more of that of full load operation, this is a waste of energy. When there are too few random tasks in a given period of time, a time-based prediction method is provided to anticipate the low utilization time of nodes in the future period of time, in order to decrease the energy consumption caused by the list allocation of low utilization nodes and idle nodes. The emission reduction method suggested by the inventory’s comprehensive carbon emission coefficient is typically more appropriate for real-world engineering situations. According to the calculations, focused and low emission reduction countermeasures and actions should be prioritized for inventory projects with high comprehensive carbon emission coefficients. When the project’s total carbon emissions do not meet the criteria, however, it may be essential to revise the design from the building plans, and it is difficult to regulate the project’s carbon emissions “in advance” and “in process.”. In addition, many factors need to be considered to realize the energy conservation and emission reduction of buildings from the perspective of bill quantities. First, when new materials, new technologies, and new processes appear, which cannot be reflected in the original similar project list, and the quantities in the list cannot be calculated or deviated, resulting in inaccurate carbon emission calculation. Second, under the valuation mode of bill of quantities, the omission of bill of quantities is one of the reasons for the high incidence of bill of quantities deviation, which may also lead to the error of carbon emission calculation. Based on this, complete the steps of design list allocation mode.
3. Experimental Analysis
3.1. Experimental Preparation
In order to verify the effectiveness of the green material list allocation method in high-rise building engineering, experiments are carried out. It is necessary to accurately calculate the node matrix. In the verification process of the proposed green material list allocation method for high-rise building engineering, as Lingoll has powerful calculation function and data processing ability, we use Lingoll to calculate and solve the model. Simultaneously, the green material selection application system focuses on two modules: a material database and a Matlab algorithm program that is called in the Lab view environment. The access database stores the single material as well as the data in the database. To define the database location, build MDB files, and label them with the material name, use LabVIEW’s DB tools insert data module. After establishing a link between the system and the database, material selection necessitates the functions of reading, adding, and deleting the particular data of each material. To operate the data in the database, use the Lab SQL database access toolkit in LabVIEW software, create a connection between labsql and the database using the driver and path of the given database, and read the data in the database using the supplied program.
3.2. Experimental Result
The green material list allocation method of high-rise building engineering based on cloud computing and the green material list allocation method of high-rise building engineering based on cluster analysis are selected for experimental comparison with the green material list allocation method of high-rise building engineering in this paper. The building energy consumption after applying the three allocation methods under different building area conditions is tested. The smaller the value is, it is proved that the better the performance of the distribution method is, and the experimental results are shown in Tables 2–4:
According to Table 2, the average building energy consumption of the green material list allocation method for high-rise building engineering in this paper and the other two methods are 99.43 (kWh), 132.17 (kWh), and 135.01 (kWh), respectively; According to Table 3, the average building energy consumption of the green material list allocation method for high-rise building engineering in this paper and the other two methods are 189.16 (kWh), 228.94 (kWh), and 245.65 (kWh), respectively; According to Table 4, the average building energy consumption of the green material list allocation method for high-rise building engineering in this paper and the other two methods are 280.02 (kWh), 308.07 (kWh), and 317.37 (kWh), respectively. It is explained that the green material list allocation method for high-rise building engineering in the text is more effective.
Through the analysis of the cost and composition of green construction of high-rise buildings, this paper summarizes the influencing factors of green construction of high-rise buildings. By using BIM Technology and relevant methods of value engineering, it is determined that the focus of green construction cost control of high-rise buildings is to optimize reinforcement batching, use commercial concrete, use fixed steel formwork, or reusable formwork system. Due to my limited ability, this paper does not conduct in-depth research on the construction cost after the application of the list allocation method, and will continue to improve this problem in the future.
The data used to support the findings of the study are available in supplementary information files.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
B. Ekici, Z. T. Kazanasmaz, M. Turrin, M. F. Taşgetiren, and I. S. Sariyildiz, “Multi-zone optimisation of high-rise buildings using artificial intelligence for sustainable metropolises. part 1: background, methodology, setup, and machine learning results,” Solar Energy, vol. 224, no. 2, pp. 373–389, 2021.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
W. Davis, “The evolution of preconstruction technology,” Engineering news-record, vol. 282, no. 1, 34 pages, 2019.View at: Google Scholar
M. Domínguez, R. Zarzuela, I. Moreno-Garrido, M. Carbú, and M. Gil, “Anti-fouling nano-ag/sio2 ormosil treatments for building materials: the role of cell-surface interactions on toxicity and bioreceptivity,” Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 153, Article ID 106120, 2021.View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar