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Malaria Research and Treatment
Volume 2011, Article ID 683167, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/683167
Review Article

Malaria Treatment Policy Change and Implementation: The Case of Uganda

1Disease Prevention and Control Cluster: World Health Organization, Uganda Country Office, P.O. Box 24578, Kampala, Uganda
2Health Systems and Services Cluster: World Health Organization, Uganda Country Office, P.O. Box 24578, Kampala, Uganda
3National Malaria Control Program: Ministry of Health P.O. Box 7272, Kampala, Uganda
4World Health Organization, Uganda Country Office, P.O. Box 24578, Kampala, Uganda

Received 17 March 2011; Accepted 7 July 2011

Academic Editor: Ananias Escalante

Copyright © 2011 Miriam Nanyunja et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Malaria due to P. falciparum is the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda where it is highly endemic in 95% of the country. The use of efficacious and effective antimalarial medicines is one of the key strategies for malaria control. Until 2000, Chloroquine (CQ) was the first-line drug for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Uganda. Due to progressive resistance to CQ and to a combination of CQ with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine, Uganda in 2004 adopted the use of ACTs as first-line drug for treating uncomplicated malaria. A review of the drug policy change process and postimplementation reports highlight the importance of managing the policy change process, generating evidence for policy decisions and availability of adequate and predictable funding for effective policy roll-out. These and other lessons learnt can be used to guide countries that are considering anti-malarial drug change in future.