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Malaria Research and Treatment
Volume 2015, Article ID 279028, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/279028
Research Article

Occurrence of pfatpase6 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Artemisinin Resistance among Field Isolates of Plasmodium falciparum in North-Eastern Tanzania

1Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College and Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute, Moshi, Tanzania
2Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania
3National Institute for Medical Research, Tanga, Tanzania

Received 21 October 2014; Accepted 12 December 2014

Academic Editor: Sanjeev Krishna

Copyright © 2015 Jaffu Chilongola et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

We aimed to determine the current prevalence of four P. falciparum candidate artemisinin resistance biomarkers L263E, E431K, A623E, and S769N in the pfatpase6 gene in a high transmission area in Tanzania in a retrospective cross sectional study using 154 archived samples collected from three previous malaria studies in 2010, 2011 and 2013. Mutations in pfatpase6 gene were detected in parasite DNA isolated from Dried Blood Spots by using PCR-RFLP. We observed overall allelic frequencies for L263E, E431K, A623E, and S769N to be 5.8% (9/154), 16.2% (25/154), 0.0% (0/154), and 3.9% (6/154). The L263E mutation was not detected in 2010 but occurred at 3.9% and 2.6% in 2011 and 2013 respectively. The L263E mutation showed a significant change of frequency between 2010 and 2011, but not between 2011 and 2013 . Frequency of E431K was highest of all without any clear trend whereas S769N increased from 2.2% in 2010 to 3.6% in 2011 and 5.1% in 2013. A623E mutation was not detected. The worrisome detection and the increase in the frequency of S769N and other mutations calls for urgent assessment of temporal changes of known artemisinin biomarkers in association with in vivo ACT efficacy.