Malaria Research and Treatment The latest articles from Hindawi © 2018 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Cross-Study of Malaria Prevalence in History, Bed Net Utilization, and Knowledge about the Disease among Tanzanian College Students Wed, 03 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +0000 University campuses are potential reservoirs of infectious diseases, but they are not in the research focus. It is obvious that the use of malaria preventive tools is extremely necessary in campus conditions in endemic countries. This study is the first malaria survey, conducted in a student campus in Tanzania. This cross-sectional study uncovered a surprisingly high prevalence of malaria history among students: 89,4% of 246 random respondents assume that they had malaria in history, among whom 145 (58,9%) suffered from the disease during the last year. And although students are relatively confident about the vector, parasite, and prevention measures of the disease, only 44,7% of the students use bed nets and 4,5% use a body spray or ointment daily. The others seldom use spray or ointment or do not care about the problem at all. This situation was found to be associated with two factors, financial and educational. Current results show that students are relatively educated on malaria, but they do not follow the malaria prevention guidance. It has become clear that at least proper informational propaganda of bed net use is required in Tanzanian university campuses. Yakobo Nyahoga and Zanda Bochkaeva Copyright © 2018 Yakobo Nyahoga and Zanda Bochkaeva. All rights reserved. Sustained Effectiveness of a Fixed-Dose Combination of Artesunate and Amodiaquine in 480 Patients with Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Côte d’Ivoire Thu, 07 Dec 2017 09:57:00 +0000 The objective of this study was to monitor the effectiveness of artesunate-amodiaquine fixed-dose combination tablets (ASAQ Winthrop®) in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Côte d’Ivoire. Two enrolment periods (November 2009 to May 2010 and March to October 2013) were compared using an identical design. Subjects with proven monospecific P. falciparum infection according to the WHO diagnostic criteria were eligible. 290 patients during each period received a dose of ASAQ Winthrop tablets appropriate for their age. The primary outcome measure was PCR-corrected adequate clinical and parasitological response at Day 28 in the per protocol population (255 in Period 1 and 240 in Period 2). This was achieved by 95.7% of patients during Period 1 and 96.3% during Period 2. Over 95% of patients were afebrile at Day 3 and complete parasite clearance was achieved at Day 3 in >99% of patients. Nineteen adverse events in nineteen patients were considered as possibly related to treatment, principally vomiting, abnormal liver function tests, and pruritus. There was no evidence for loss of effectiveness over the three-year period in spite of strong drug pressure. This trial was registered in the US Clinical Trials Registry ( under the identifier number NCT01023399. Serge Brice Assi, Abouo Franklin Nguessan, Yapo Thomas Aba, André Offianan Toure, Hervé Menan, Jean Claude Yavo, Koffi Moïse San, Emmanuel Bissagnéné, Stephan Duparc, Valérie Lameyre, and Mea Antoine Tanoh Copyright © 2017 Serge Brice Assi et al. All rights reserved. Use of Insecticide-Treated Mosquito Net among Pregnant Women and Guardians of Children under Five in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Mon, 06 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Background. Insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) are one of the most effective tools for preventing malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective. This study examined knowledge, attitude, and practice on the use of ITNs in the prevention of malaria among pregnant women and guardians of children under five in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Methods. A total of 5,138 pregnant women and guardians of children under five were interviewed. Results. The majority of participants (>80%) knew the signs and symptoms of malaria; 81.6% reported having an ITN in the household, but 78.4% reported using it the night before the interview. Only 71.4% of pregnant women used ITN the night compared to 68.2% of children under five. In the Logistic Regression model, women who believed that it is normal to use ITNs were 1.9 times more likely to use it than those who did not (OR: 1.930); women who were confident in their abilities to use ITNs were 1.9 times more likely than those who were not confident (OR: 1.915); and women who had a good attitude towards ITNs were also more likely to use ITNs compared to those who did not (OR: 1.529). Conclusion. New and innovative evidence-based behavior change interventions are needed to increase the utilization of ITNs among vulnerable groups. Joseph N. Inungu, Nestor Ankiba, Mark Minelli, Vincent Mumford, Dido Bolekela, Bienvenu Mukoso, Willy Onema, Etienne Kouton, and Dolapo Raji Copyright © 2017 Joseph N. Inungu et al. All rights reserved. Detection of Plasmodium Aldolase Using a Smartphone and Microfluidic Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay Wed, 06 Sep 2017 08:35:24 +0000 Background. Malaria control efforts are limited in rural areas. A low-cost system to monitor response without the use of electricity is needed. Plasmodium aldolase is a malaria biomarker measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. A three-part system using ELISA was developed consisting of a microfluidic chip, hand crank centrifuge, and a smartphone. Methods. A circular microfluidic chip was fabricated using clear acrylic and a CO2 laser. A series of passive valves released reagents at precise times based upon centrifugal force. Color change was measured via smartphone camera using an application programmed in Java. The microchip was compared to a standard 96-well sandwich ELISA. Results. Results from standard ELISA were compared to microchip at varying concentrations (1–10 ng/mL). Over 15 different microfluidic patterns were tested, and a final prototype of the chip was created. The prototype microchip was compared to standard sandwich ELISA () using samples of recombinant aldolase. Color readings of standard ELISA and microfluidic microchip showed similar results. Conclusion. A low-cost microfluidic system could detect and follow therapeutic outcomes in rural areas and identify resistant strains. Nikhil S. Gopal and Ruben Raychaudhuri Copyright © 2017 Nikhil S. Gopal and Ruben Raychaudhuri. All rights reserved. Visceral Leishmaniasis-Malaria Coinfection and Their Associated Factors in Patients Attending Metema Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: Suggestion for Integrated Vector Management Mon, 28 Aug 2017 08:34:54 +0000 Background. Despite high prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis and malaria in the study area, their coinfection remains unknown. Therefore, this study was aimed to document VL-malaria coinfections and their associated factors. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among clinical suspected VL patients attending Metema hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, from January 2014 to June 2014. Blood sample was tested by rk39 antigen-based DiaMed IT-Leish dipstick and Giemsa stain microscopic examination of thick and thin blood smears for malaria detection was performed. Result. A total of 384 VL suspected patients were included in the study. Out of these, the prevalence of VL was 83 (21.6%) while the prevalence of malaria was 45 (11.7%). Of malaria cases, 40 (89%) were positive for P. falciparum and 5 (11%) positive for P. vivax. The overall prevalence of VL-malaria coinfection was 16 (4.2%). One-hundred eighty (46.9%) study participants have history of travel. Of these, 10 (5.6%) have VL-malaria coinfections. Age less than 5 years was associated with VL-malaria coinfection. Conclusion. This study highlights the importance of performing malaria screening amongst VL patients living in malaria-endemic areas, particularly in patients under five years. Getachew Ferede, Ermias Diro, Sisay Getie, Gebeyaw Getnet, Yegnasew Takele, Anteneh Amsalu, and Yitayih Wondimeneh Copyright © 2017 Getachew Ferede et al. All rights reserved. Bibliometric Analysis of Worldwide Publications on Antimalarial Drug Resistance (2006–2015) Thu, 10 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Background. In response to international efforts to control and eradicate malaria, we designed this study to give a bibliometric overview of research productivity in antimalarial drug resistance (AMDR). Methods. Keywords related to AMDR were used to retrieve relevant literature using Scopus database. Results. A total of 976 publications with an h-index of 63 were retrieved. The number of publications showed a noticeable increase starting in the early 1990s. The USA was the most productive country with 337 publications equivalent to one-third of worldwide publications in this field. More than two-thirds of publications by the USA (236, 70.03%) were made by international collaboration. Of the top ten productive countries, two countries were from Mekong subregion, particularly Thailand and Cambodia. The Malaria Journal was the most productive journal (136, 13.93%) in this field. Mahidol University (80, 8.20%) in Thailand was the most productive institution. Seven articles in the top-ten list were about artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum, one was about chloroquine resistance, one was about sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance, and the remaining one was about general multidrug resistance. Conclusion. Eradication and control of AMDR require continuing research activity to help international health organizations identify spots that require an immediate action to implement appropriate measures. Waleed M. Sweileh, Samah W. Al-Jabi, Ansam F. Sawalha, Adham S. AbuTaha, and Sa’ed H. Zyoud Copyright © 2017 Waleed M. Sweileh et al. All rights reserved. Low Utilization of Insecticide-Treated Bed Net among Pregnant Women in the Middle Belt of Ghana Sun, 30 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Background. Malaria in pregnancy leads to low birth weight, premature birth, anaemia, and maternal and neonatal mortality. Use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) during pregnancy is one of the proven interventions to reduce the malaria burden. However, Ghana has not achieved its target for ITN use among pregnant women. Methods. A qualitative study was conducted in seven communities purposively selected from the middle belt of Ghana. Participants who had delivered in the six months prior to this study were selected. In all, seven focus group discussions and twenty-four in-depth interviews were conducted between June and August 2010. Results. Respondents knew of the importance of ITNs and other malaria-preventive strategies. Factors such as financial access and missed opportunities of free distribution denied some pregnant women the opportunity to own or use an ITN. Reasons for not using ITNs during pregnancy included discomfort resulting from heat, smell of the net, and difficulty in hanging the net. Participants maintained their ITNs by preventing holes in the nets, retreatment, and infrequent washing. Conclusion. Pregnant women know about the causes and prevention of malaria. However, this knowledge is not transformed into practice due to lack of access to ITNs and sleeping discomforts among other logistical constraints. Grace Manu, Ellen Abrafi Boamah-Kaali, Lawrence Gyabaa Febir, Emmanuel Ayipah, Seth Owusu-Agyei, and Kwaku Poku Asante Copyright © 2017 Grace Manu et al. All rights reserved. Major Polymorphisms of Genes Involved in Homocysteine Metabolism in Malaria Patients in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso Thu, 18 May 2017 10:56:20 +0000 This study analyzed the four main polymorphisms of the genes in homocysteine metabolism in malaria patients. Forty-two randomly selected subjects, diagnosed positive for Plasmodium falciparum, were included. The four genotypes were detected by real-time PCR using the MTHFR 677C>T, MTHFR 1298A>C, MTR 2756A>G, and MTRR 66A>G detection kit (Sacace Biotechnologies REF: T01002-96-S). The results revealed frequencies of 90% 677CC, 10% 677CT, and 00% 677TT for MTHFR C677T; 78.6% 1298AA, 19% 1298AC, and 2.4% 1298CC for MTHFR A1298C; 61.9% 2756AA, 33.3% 2756AG, and 4.8% 2756GG for MTR A2756G; and 50% of 66AA, 45% of 66AG, and 5% of 66GG for MTRR A66G. Correlations were found between A2756G MTR genotypes and parasitaemia (), MTRR A66G and hemoglobin genotypes (), and MTHFR A1298C and sex (). This study demonstrated for the first time an association between the A2756G MTR alleles and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Burkina Faso and gave an overview of the genotypic distribution of the major SNPs influencing the metabolism of homocysteine. Noé Yameogo, Bapio Valérie Elvira Jean Télesphore Bazie, Abdoul Karim Ouattara, Pouiré Yameogo, Tegwinde Rebeca Compaore, Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah, Florencia Wenkuuni Djigma, Simplice Damintoti Karou, and Jacques Simpore Copyright © 2017 Noé Yameogo et al. All rights reserved. Long-Term Prophylaxis and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Intramuscular Nano- and Microparticle Decoquinate in Mice Infected with P. berghei Sporozoites Thu, 13 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Decoquinate nanoparticle and microparticle suspended in an oily vehicle to retard drug release are evaluated for long-term malaria prophylaxis. Pharmacokinetic studies in normal animals and antimalarial efficacy in liver stage malaria mice were conducted at various single intramuscular-decoquinate doses for 2, 4, 6, or 8 weeks prior to infection with P. berghei sporozoites. The liver stage efficacy evaluation was monitored by using an in vivo imaging system. Full causal prophylaxis was shown in mice with a single intramuscular dose at 120 mg/kg of nanoparticle decoquinate (0.43 μm) for 2-3 weeks and with microparticle decoquinate (8.31 μm) injected 8 weeks earlier than inoculation. The time above MIC of 1,375 hr observed with the microparticle formulation provided a 2.2-fold longer drug exposure than with the nanoparticle formulation (624 hr). The prophylactic effect of the microparticle formulation observed in mice was shown to be 3-4 times longer than the nanoparticle decoquinate formulation. Qigui Li, Lisa Xie, Diana Caridha, Qiang Zeng, Jing Zhang, Norma Roncal, Ping Zhang, Chau Vuong, Brittney Potter, Jason Sousa, Sean Marcsisin, Lisa Read, and Mark Hickman Copyright © 2017 Qigui Li et al. All rights reserved. Monitoring Compliance and Acceptability of Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria Using Sulfadoxine Pyrimethamine after Ten Years of Implementation in Tanzania Thu, 30 Mar 2017 08:24:45 +0000 Intermittent preventive treatment using SP (IPTp-SP) is still a superior interventional approach to control malaria during pregnancy. However its rate of use has gone down tremendously in malaria endemic areas. This study forms part of a larger study aimed at monitoring the compliance of IPTp-SP policy in malaria endemic areas of Tanzania. Two cross-sectional studies were conducted in Dar es Salaam and Njombe Regions of Tanzania. Overall, 540 pregnant women and 21 healthcare workers were interviewed using structured questionnaires. This study revealed that 63% of women were not willing to take SP during pregnancy while 91% would only take it if they tested positive for malaria during antennal visits. 63% of the interviewed women did not know the recommended dose of SP required during pregnancy, despite the fact that 82% of the women were aware of the adverse effect of malaria during pregnancy. It was found out that 54% of pregnant women (30–40 weeks) took single dose, 34% took two doses, and 16% did not take SP at the time of interview. It was also found that SP was not administered under direct observed therapy in 86% of women. There was no significant relationship between number of doses received by pregnant women and antenatal clinic (ANC) start date ( = 0.0033, 95% CI (−0.016 to 0.034)). However positive correlation between drug uptake and drug availability was revealed (). Knowledge on adverse effects of placental malaria among pregnant women was significantly associated with drug uptake (OR 11.81, 95% CI (5.755–24.23), ). We conclude that unavailability of drugs in ANC is the major reason hindering the implementation of IPTp-SP. Mdetele B. Ayubu and Winifrida B. Kidima Copyright © 2017 Mdetele B. Ayubu and Winifrida B. Kidima. All rights reserved. Statistical Methods for Predicting Malaria Incidences Using Data from Sudan Tue, 07 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Malaria is the leading cause of illness and death in Sudan. The entire population is at risk of malaria epidemics with a very high burden on government and population. The usefulness of forecasting methods in predicting the number of future incidences is needed to motivate the development of a system that can predict future incidences. The objective of this paper is to develop applicable and understood time series models and to find out what method can provide better performance to predict future incidences level. We used monthly incidence data collected from five states in Sudan with unstable malaria transmission. We test four methods of the forecast: () autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA); () exponential smoothing; () transformation model; and () moving average. The result showed that transformation method performed significantly better than the other methods for Gadaref, Gazira, North Kordofan, and Northern, while the moving average model performed significantly better for Khartoum. Future research should combine a number of different and dissimilar methods of time series to improve forecast accuracy with the ultimate aim of developing a simple and useful model for producing reasonably reliable forecasts of the malaria incidence in the study area. Hamid H. Hussien, Fathy H. Eissa, and Khidir E. Awadalla Copyright © 2017 Hamid H. Hussien et al. All rights reserved. A Weather-Based Prediction Model of Malaria Prevalence in Amenfi West District, Ghana Tue, 31 Jan 2017 09:06:14 +0000 This study investigated the effects of climatic variables, particularly, rainfall and temperature, on malaria incidence using time series analysis. Our preliminary analysis revealed that malaria incidence in the study area decreased at about 0.35% annually. Also, the month of November recorded approximately 21% more malaria cases than the other months while September had a decreased effect of about 14%. The forecast model developed for this investigation indicated that mean minimum () and maximum () monthly temperatures lagged at three months were significant predictors of malaria incidence while rainfall was not. Diagnostic tests using Ljung-Box and ARCH-LM tests revealed that the model developed was adequate for forecasting. Forecast values for 2016 to 2020 generated by our model suggest a possible future decline in malaria incidence. This goes to suggest that intervention strategies put in place by some nongovernmental and governmental agencies to combat the disease are effective and thus should be encouraged and routinely monitored to yield more desirable outcomes. Esther Love Darkoh, John Aseidu Larbi, and Eric Adjei Lawer Copyright © 2017 Esther Love Darkoh et al. All rights reserved. Nonobese Diabetic (NOD) Mice Lack a Protective B-Cell Response against the “Nonlethal” Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL Malaria Protozoan Thu, 15 Dec 2016 11:52:22 +0000 Background. Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL is a nonlethal malaria strain in mice of different genetic backgrounds including the C57BL/6 mice () used in this study as a control strain. We have compared the trends of blood stage infection with the nonlethal murine strain of P. yoelii 17XNL malaria protozoan in immunocompetent Nonobese Diabetic (NOD) mice prone to type 1 diabetes (T1D) and C57BL/6 mice (control mice) that are not prone to T1D and self-cure the P. yoelii 17XNL infection. Prediabetic NOD mice could not mount a protective antibody response to the P. yoelii 17XNL-infected red blood cells (iRBCs), and they all succumbed shortly after infection. Our data suggest that the lack of anti-P. yoelii 17XNL-iRBCs protective antibodies in NOD mice is a result of parasite-induced, Foxp3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells able to suppress the parasite-specific antibody secretion. Conclusions. The NOD mouse model may help in identifying new mechanisms of B-cell evasion by malaria parasites. It may also serve as a more accurate tool for testing antimalaria therapeutics due to the lack of interference with a preexistent self-curing mechanism present in other mouse strains. Mirian Mendoza, Luis Pow Sang, Qi Qiu, Sofia Casares, and Teodor-D. Brumeanu Copyright © 2016 Mirian Mendoza et al. All rights reserved. Burden of Placental Malaria among Pregnant Women Who Use or Do Not Use Intermittent Preventive Treatment at Mulago Hospital, Kampala Tue, 13 Dec 2016 09:28:29 +0000 Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP-IPTp) is widely used to reduce the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes. As a monitor for continued effectiveness of this intervention amidst SP resistance, we aimed to assess malaria burden among pregnant women who use or do not use SP-IPTp. In a descriptive cohort study at Mulago Hospital, Kampala, 87 women who received two supervised doses of SP-IPTp were followed up until delivery. Controls were pregnant women presenting in early labour without history of SP-IPTp. Histopathological investigation for placental malaria (PM) was performed using the Bulmer classification criterion. Thirty-eight of the 87 women returned for delivery and 33 placentas were successfully collected and processed along with 33 placentas from SP nonusers. Overall, 12% (4/33) of the users had evidence of PM compared to 48% (16/33) of nonusers. Among nonusers, 17/33, 8/33, 2/33, and 6/33 had no placental infection, active infection, active-chronic infection, and past-chronic infection, respectively. Among users, respective proportions were 29/33, 2/33, 0/33, and 2/33. No difference in birth weights was apparent between the two groups, probably due to a higher proportion of infections occurring later in pregnancy. Histological evidence here suggests that SP continues to offer substantial benefit as IPTp. Charles Okot Odongo, Michael Odida, Henry Wabinga, Celestino Obua, and Josaphat Byamugisha Copyright © 2016 Charles Okot Odongo et al. All rights reserved. Inhibition of In Vivo Growth of Plasmodium berghei by Launaea taraxacifolia and Amaranthus viridis in Mice Mon, 05 Dec 2016 13:00:12 +0000 Launaea taraxacifolia and Amaranthus viridis used by people of Western Africa in the treatment of malaria and related symptoms were assessed for their antiplasmodial value against the chloroquine sensitive strain of Plasmodium berghei. Crude extracts (200 mg/kg) and chloroquine (5 mg/kg) were administered to different groups of Swiss mice. The percentage of parasitemia, survival time, and haematological parameters were determined. Both extracts significantly () inhibited parasitemia and improved survival time in infected mice. The crude extracts prevented loss of some haematological parameters. A. viridis had a distinct effect on the packed cell volume. The extract was able to protect the liver from some of the damage. This study however showed that the methanolic extracts of A. viridis and L. taraxacifolia possess antiplasmodial activity. The results of this study can be used as a basis for further phytochemical investigations in the search for new and locally affordable antimalarial agents. Adewale Adetutu, Olubukola S. Olorunnisola, Abiodun O. Owoade, and Peter Adegbola Copyright © 2016 Adewale Adetutu et al. All rights reserved. Maternal Attitudes about Objectively Monitored Bednet Use in Rural Uganda Wed, 19 Oct 2016 08:52:28 +0000 Insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) are a mainstay of malaria prevention, yet poor adherence poses a major barrier to effective prevention. Self-reports of bednet use suffer from recall and social desirability biases. We have designed a device that electronically records ITN usage longitudinally. SmartNet consists of circuits made from a conductive fabric interwoven into the sides and top of a rectangular ITN. Digital sampling of the state of these circuits allows for determining whether the SmartNet is deployed for use or folded up. We conducted a study among pregnant women and women with children <5 years in Uganda to determine attitudes about objective bednet monitoring and SmartNet. Fifty women were interviewed with an average age of 27 years and 2.3 children. Twenty-two percent were pregnant. Ninety-five percent had used a bednet and 90% reported having a bednet at home. After displaying a SmartNet, 92% thought it would be easy to use and 100% expressed interest in using SmartNet. Concerns about SmartNet included washing the net, worries about being monitored while asleep, and worries about users removing the device components. Objective monitoring of ITN use appears to be acceptable among women in rural Uganda, setting the stage for further SmartNet field testing. Paul J. Krezanoski, Data Santorino, Nuriat Nambogo, Jeffrey I. Campbell, and David R. Bangsberg Copyright © 2016 Paul J. Krezanoski et al. All rights reserved. Cost-Effectiveness and Validity Assessment of Cyscope Microscope, Quantitative Buffy Coat Microscope, and Rapid Diagnostic Kit for Malaria Diagnosis among Clinic Attendees in Ibadan, Nigeria Thu, 14 Jul 2016 16:05:34 +0000 Background. Unavailability of accurate, rapid, reliable, and cost-effective malaria diagnostic instruments constitutes major a challenge to malaria elimination. We validated alternative malaria diagnostic instruments and assessed their comparative cost-effectiveness. Method. Using a cross-sectional study design, 502 patients with malaria symptoms at selected health facilities in Ibadan between January and April 2014 were recruited consecutively. We examined malaria parasites using Cyscope®, QBC, and CareStart™ and results were compared to light microscopy (LM). Validity was determined by assessing sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). Costs per hour of use for instruments and turnaround time were determined. Result. Sensitivity of the instruments was 76.0% (CareStart), 95.0% (Cyscope), and 98.1% (QBC). Specificity was 96.0% (CareStart), 87.3% (Cyscope), and 85.5% (QBC). PPV were 65.2%, 67.5%, and 84.7%, while NPV were 93.6%, 98.6%, and 99.4% for CareStart, Cyscope, and QBC with Kappa values of 0.75 (CI = 0.68–0.82) for CareStart, 0.72 (CI = 0.65–0.78) for Cyscope, and 0.71 (CI = 0.64–0.77) for QBC. Average cost per hour of use was the lowest ($2.04) with the Cyscope. Turnaround time was the fastest with Cyscope (5 minutes). Conclusion. Cyscope fluorescent microscope had the shortest turnaround time and is the most cost-effective of all the malaria diagnostic instruments evaluated. Abiodun Ogunniyi, Magbagbeola David Dairo, Hannah Dada-Adegbola, Ikeoluwapo O. Ajayi, Adebola Olayinka, Wellington A. Oyibo, Olufunmilayo I. Fawole, and Olufemi Ajumobi Copyright © 2016 Abiodun Ogunniyi et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Long Lasting Insecticide Bed Net Use on Malaria Prevalence in the Tombel Health District, South West Region-Cameroon Wed, 15 Jun 2016 13:49:59 +0000 Malaria remains a major public health problem in Africa, and its prevalence in Cameroon stands at 29%. Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs) were distributed in 2011 to reduce malaria mortality and morbidity; however, assessment of this intervention is scanty. The present study in the Tombel health district (THD) investigated the impact of this distribution on malaria prevalence. A total of 31,657 hospital records from 3 health facilities in 3 health areas for 2010–2013 were examined. Records for 2010 and 2011 provided predistribution baseline data, while those of 2012 and 2013 represented postdistribution data. 8,679 (27.4%) patients were positive for malaria. Children below 5 years had the highest prevalence (40.7%). The number of confirmed cases was highest from June to August (peak rainy season). Malaria prevalence was higher in males (25.3%) than in females (23.2%). Malaria prevalence increased in THD from 26.7% in 2010 to 30.7% in 2011 but dropped to 22.7% in 2012 and then increased in 2013 to 29.5%. There was an overall drop in the total number of confirmed malaria cases in 2012; this decrease was significant in Ebonji () and Nyasoso () health areas. The distribution of LLINs led to a short lived reduction in malaria prevalence in THD. LLIN distribution and other control activities should be reinforced to keep malaria prevalence low especially among the 0–5-year group. Eric B. Fokam, Kevin T. J. Dzi, Leonard Ngimuh, and Peter Enyong Copyright © 2016 Eric B. Fokam et al. All rights reserved. Increased Prevalence of Mutant Allele Pfdhps 437G and Pfdhfr Triple Mutation in Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from a Rural Area of Gabon, Three Years after the Change of Malaria Treatment Policy Sun, 17 Apr 2016 12:11:47 +0000 In Gabon, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is recommended for intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp-SP) and for uncomplicated malaria treatment through ACTs drug. P. falciparum strains resistant to SP are frequent in areas where this drug is highly used and is associated with the occurrence of mutations on Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthetase (Pfdhps) genes. The aim of the study was to compare the proportion of mutations on Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes in isolates collected at Oyem in northern Gabon, in 2005 at the time of IPTp-SP introduction and three years later. Point mutations were analyzed by nested PCR-RFLP method. Among 91 isolates, more than 90% carried Pfdhfr 108N and Pfdhfr 59R alleles. Frequencies of Pfdhfr 51I (98%) and Pfdhps 437G (67.7%) mutant alleles were higher in 2008. Mutations at codons 164, 540, and 581 were not detected. The proportion of the triple Pfdhfr mutation and quadruple mutation including A437G was high: 91.9% in 2008 and 64.8% in 2008, respectively. The present study highlights an elevated frequency of Pfdhfr and Pfdhps mutant alleles, although quintuple mutations were not found in north Gabon. These data suggest the need of a continuous monitoring of SP resistance in Gabon. Jacques-Mari Ndong Ngomo, Denise Patricia Mawili-Mboumba, Noé Patrick M’Bondoukwe, Rosalie Nikiéma Ndong Ella, and Marielle Karine Bouyou Akotet Copyright © 2016 Jacques-Mari Ndong Ngomo et al. All rights reserved. Assessing the Role of Climate Change in Malaria Transmission in Africa Tue, 15 Mar 2016 11:33:59 +0000 The sensitivity of vector borne diseases like malaria to climate continues to raise considerable concern over the implications of climate change on future disease dynamics. The problem of malaria vectors shifting from their traditional locations to invade new zones is of important concern. A mathematical model incorporating rainfall and temperature is constructed to study the transmission dynamics of malaria. The reproduction number obtained is applied to gridded temperature and rainfall datasets for baseline climate and future climate with aid of GIS. As a result of climate change, malaria burden is likely to increase in the tropics, the highland regions, and East Africa and along the northern limit of falciparum malaria. Falciparum malaria will spread into the African highlands; however it is likely to die out at the southern limit of the disease. E. T. Ngarakana-Gwasira, C. P. Bhunu, M. Masocha, and E. Mashonjowa Copyright © 2016 E. T. Ngarakana-Gwasira et al. All rights reserved. Severe Malaria Associated with Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax among Children in Pawe Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia Mon, 07 Mar 2016 09:34:57 +0000 Despite rigorous effort made to control malaria for more than a century, it is still among the main public health problems in least developed regions of the world. Majority of deaths associated with malaria occur in sub-Sahara Africa among biologically risked groups. Thus, this study was designed to assess the incidence of severe malaria syndromes among children in Pawe Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Children seeking medication for malaria infection in Pawe Hospital during the study period were recruited. Sociodemographic characteristics, physical, hematological, and clinical features of complicated malaria were assessed following standard parasitological and clinical procedures. A total of 263 children were found malaria positive. Among these, 200 were infected with Plasmodium falciparum. Most of the severe malaria symptoms were observed among children infected with P. falciparum and P. vivax. The study showed that significant number of the children developed severe life threatening malaria complications. This calls for prompt early diagnosis and effective treatment of patients to reduce mortality and complications associated with malaria in the study site. Getachew Geleta and Tsige Ketema Copyright © 2016 Getachew Geleta and Tsige Ketema. All rights reserved. Improving Access to Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test in Niger State, Nigeria: An Assessment of Implementation up to 2013 Sun, 06 Mar 2016 14:03:32 +0000 Nigeria’s 2009–2013 malaria strategic plan adopted WHO diagnosis and treatment guidelines, which include the use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) prior to prescribing treatment with artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs). The current study explores accessibility barriers to the use of RDTs in Niger State and makes recommendations for improving the uptake of RDTs. The study employs literature review, review of data from the Niger State Health Management Information System for January–October 2013, and application of Peters’ conceptual framework for assessing access to health services. Data showed that 27 percent of public health facilities (HFs) implemented RDTs, with the aid of donor funds. In these facilities, 77 percent of fever cases presented during the study period were tested with RDTs; 53 percent of fever cases were confirmed cases of malaria, while 60 percent of fever cases were treated. Stockouts of RDTs were a major constraint, and severe fever tended to trigger presumptive treatment. We conclude that although implementation of RDTs led to a reduction in the use of ACTs at HFs, more substantial reduction could be achieved if the state government directed more resources towards the acquisition of RDTs as well as raising the level of awareness of potential users. Olatunji Joshua Awoleye and Chris Thron Copyright © 2016 Olatunji Joshua Awoleye and Chris Thron. All rights reserved. High Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Asymptomatic Individuals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo Thu, 28 Jan 2016 13:53:23 +0000 Malaria remains a major public health problem in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) with 14 million cases reported by the WHO Malaria Report in 2014. Asymptomatic malaria cases are known to be prevalent in endemic areas and are generally untreated, resulting in a significant source of gametocytes that may serve as reservoir of disease transmission. Considering that microscopy certainly underestimates the prevalence of Plasmodium infections within asymptomatic carriers and that PCR assays are currently recognized as the most sensitive methods for Plasmodium identification, this study was conducted to weigh the asymptomatic carriage in DRC by a molecular method. Six provinces were randomly selected for blood collection in which 80 to 100 individuals were included in the study. Five hundred and eighty blood samples were collected and molecular diagnosis was performed. Globally, almost half of the samples collected from asymptomatic individuals (280/580; 48.2%) had Plasmodium infections and the most species identified was P. falciparum alone in combination with P. malariae. The high prevalence reported here should interpellate the bodies involved in malaria control in DR Congo to take into account asymptomatic carriers in actions taken and consider asymptomatic malaria as a major hurdle for malaria elimination. Dieudonné Makaba Mvumbi, Thierry Lengu Bobanga, Pierrette Melin, Patrick De Mol, Jean-Marie Ntumba Kayembe, Hippolyte Nani-Tuma Situakibanza, Georges Lelo Mvumbi, Célestin Ndosimao Nsibu, Solange Efundu Umesumbu, and Marie-Pierre Hayette Copyright © 2016 Dieudonné Makaba Mvumbi et al. All rights reserved. Assessing ABO/Rh Blood Group Frequency and Association with Asymptomatic Malaria among Blood Donors Attending Arba Minch Blood Bank, South Ethiopia Wed, 27 Jan 2016 11:03:40 +0000 Background. Determination of the various ABO/Rh blood group distributions and their association with malaria infection has paramount importance in the context of transfusion medicine and malaria control. Methods. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June, 2015, to assess ABO/Rh blood groups distribution and their association with asymptomatic malaria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Blood grouping was done using monoclonal antibodies. Thin and thick blood films were examined for Plasmodium parasites. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results. A total of 416 blood donors participated with median age of (median ± standard error of the mean). Distribution of ABO phenotypes, in decreasing order, was O (175, 42.1%), A (136, 32.7%), B (87, 20.9%), and AB (18, 4.3%). Most of them were Rh+ (386, 92.8%). The overall malaria prevalence was 4.1% (17/416). ABO blood group is significantly associated with malaria infection (). High rate of parasitemia was seen in blood group O donors (6.899, ) compared to those with other ABO blood groups. Conclusion. Blood groups O and AB phenotypes are the most and the least ABO blood groups, respectively. There is significant association between ABO blood group and asymptomatic malaria parasitemia. Getaneh Alemu and Mohammedaman Mama Copyright © 2016 Getaneh Alemu and Mohammedaman Mama. All rights reserved. Acceptance and Utilisation of Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine and Insecticide-Treated Nets among Pregnant Women in Oyo State, Nigeria Tue, 29 Dec 2015 11:45:07 +0000 The study is an investigation of the acceptance and utilisation of Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (Fansidar), the drug of choice for Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnancy, and Insecticide-Treated Nets among pregnant women who access different health facilities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Pregnant women (582) attending government primary healthcare antenatal clinics and 50 attending faith clinics purposively selected responded to structured instruments that were analysed using percentages, -test correlation, and multiple regression. Acceptance and utilisation of RBM tools were higher in government clinics than faith clinics and in rural areas. Pregnant women in government clinics, 60.8% and 66.8%, and faith clinics, 18% and 38.0%, utilised Roll Back Malaria tools, significant at , , and , , respectively. Pregnant women in rural locations who accessed government clinics utilised Roll Back Malaria tools more than those in urban areas, , . Number of pregnancies, educational qualification of the pregnant women, and marital status significantly and consistently influenced acceptance and utilisation of these tools. To ensure that set targets are met, the utilization of RBM tools among the two categories of pregnant women can be improved by increasing the supply of the tools and ensuring that treatment is free. Aderonke A. Adeola and Eugenia A. Okwilagwe Copyright © 2015 Aderonke A. Adeola and Eugenia A. Okwilagwe. All rights reserved. Trend Analysis of Malaria Occurrence in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia: Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study Mon, 07 Dec 2015 11:19:00 +0000 Background. Malaria is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. The trend of malaria occurrence remains unknown in the study area. This study is aimed at determining the last five years’ trend of malaria occurrence from 2008/09 to 2012/13 in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods. A health facility-based retrospective study was conducted in Wolaita Zone from March to August, 2014. Five years’ laboratory confirmed malaria record review was made from six health centers. Result. A total of 105,755 laboratory confirmed malaria cases were reported, with total slide positivity rate of 33.27% and mean annual occurrence of 21,151 cases. Malaria occurred with a fluctuating trend in the study area, with its peak occurring at the year 2011/12. Overall, no remarkable decline in the total laboratory confirmed malaria was observed in the last five years. P. falciparum was the predominantly reported species, accounting for 75,929 (71.80%) of cases. The highest slide positivity rate was observed in the age group of 5–14 years (40.5%) followed by 1–4 years (35.5%). Two malaria peak seasons occurred: one from September to December and the other from April to June. Conclusion. No remarkable decline in laboratory confirmed malaria in the last five years was observed. Deresse Legesse, Yusuf Haji, and Solomon Abreha Copyright © 2015 Deresse Legesse et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Trend of Malaria Prevalence in the Ten Asian Countries from 2006 to 2011: A Longitudinal Study Sun, 29 Nov 2015 07:46:16 +0000 Background. To control the malaria mortality, the global and national communities have worked together and produced impressive results in the world. Some of the Asian counties’ malaria mortality rate is more compared to countries with high health facilities around the world. This paper’s main aim is to describe trend of malaria cases and mortality in 10 Asian countries using the World Health Organization data. Methods. Malaria mortality data was collected systematically from WHO and UN database for the period 2006–2011. We estimated malaria mortality by age and countries. We also explored the dynamic relationships among malaria death rate, total populations, and geographical region using a map. During 2006–2011, the average malaria death per 10,000 population of all ages was 0.239 (95% CI 0.104 to 0.373), of children aged less than 5 year 1.143 (0.598 to 1.687), and of age greater than 5 years 0.089 (0.043 to 0.137) in Asian countries. Malaria prevalence per 10,000 populations steadily decreased from 486.7 in 2006 to 298.9 in 2011. Conclusion. The findings show that malaria mortality is higher for children aged less than 5 years compared with with adults selected in Asian countries except Sri Lanka. Shongkour Roy and Tanjina Khatun Copyright © 2015 Shongkour Roy and Tanjina Khatun. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria among Pregnant Students in Dodoma Region, Tanzania: No Cases Have Been Detected Thu, 19 Nov 2015 12:34:54 +0000 Malaria in pregnancy, being often asymptomatic, is a major problem in endemic African countries. It is characterized by anemia and placental malaria leading to poor pregnancy outcomes. In 2001 Tanzania adopted an intermittent-preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) policy, which recommends receiving doses of antimalarial drugs every planned visit to the antenatal care centre (ANC), starting from the second trimester. Currently the policy is valid across the whole country, regardless that there are regions with very low malaria endemicity in Tanzania, such as Dodoma region. The current study aimed to show the real prevalence of malaria among young pregnant women in Dodoma region, by measuring the prevalence of malaria among University of Dodoma (UDOM) students, and to describe the social health care features of student female community. Two methods of malaria diagnostic, microscopy, and rapid test, as well as retrospective inspection of ANC registry book, showed the very low prevalence of malaria disease among pregnant students, approximately 0.3%. Additionally, the sociodemographic data from the questionnaires showed that all students use different malaria preventive measures, and most of them have the regular sexual partner. This fact approves the correlation between illiteracy of woman and the risk of malaria infection transmission. Karen N. Zablon, Charles Kakilla, Tatiana Lykina, Victoria Minakova, Alphaxad Chibago, and Zanda Bochkaeva Copyright © 2015 Karen N. Zablon et al. All rights reserved. Population-Based Seroprevalence of Malaria in Hormozgan Province, Southeastern Iran: A Low Transmission Area Mon, 12 Oct 2015 11:19:03 +0000 The seroepidemiological condition of malaria in three main districts of Hormozgan Province, a low transmission area in southeast of Iran, was investigated. Methods. Sera samples (803) were collected from healthy volunteers from the three main districts (Bandar Lengeh in the west, Bandar Abbas in the center, and Bandar Jask in the east) of Hormozgan Province. A questionnaire was used to record the sociodemographic features of the participants during sample collecting. An in-house ELISA test, using crude antigens obtained from cell culture of Plasmodium falciparum, was adapted and used to detect anti-malaria antibodies in the sera. Results. The overall seroprevalence of malaria was 8.7% (70 out of 803 samples). A significant correlation was found between seropositivity and place of residence, where the highest rate of seropositivity was seen in Bandar Lengeh (west of the province). The highest seroprevalence of malaria (13.2%) was seen in the age group of 11–20 years and also in low educated individuals. Correlation between seropositivity and gender, age, and educational levels of the participants was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Findings of this study indicate that the rate of seropositivity to malaria in this area is not high and this might be linked to the success of malaria control programs during the last decades in the region. Gholam Reza Hatam, Fatemeh Nejati, Tahereh Mohammadzadeh, Reza Shahriari Rad, and Bahador Sarkari Copyright © 2015 Gholam Reza Hatam et al. All rights reserved. Sustained Release Formulation of Primaquine for Prevention of Relapse of Plasmodium vivax Malaria: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Comparative, Multicentric Study Thu, 20 Aug 2015 14:51:25 +0000 Background. Primaquine is used to eradicate latent Plasmodium vivax parasite from liver, with administration of standard dose daily up to 14 days. We studied efficacy, safety, and tolerability of sustained release (SR) formulation of primaquine in comparison with conventional primaquine in preventing relapse of P. vivax malaria. Methods. Microscopically confirmed cases of P. vivax malaria received chloroquine therapy for three days. Aparasitemic and asymptomatic patients were then randomized to receive either conventional primaquine 15 mg for 14 days or primaquine SR 15 mg for 14 days, or primaquine SR 30 mg for seven days. Results. Of the 360 patients, who received chloroquine therapy, 358 patients were randomized. Two-hundred eighty-eight patients completed six-month follow-up and four patients (three: conventional primaquine 15 mg (2.86%), one: primaquine SR 30 mg (0.93%)) showed relapse confirmed by PCR genotyping. Drug compliance was significantly better in primaquine SR 30 mg group (95.57%, ) without any serious adverse events. Conclusion. Primaquine SR 15 mg and primaquine SR 30 mg could be an effective alternative to conventional primaquine 15 mg due to their comparable cure rates and safety profile. Shorter treatment duration with primaquine SR 30 mg may increase patient compliance and may further reduce relapse rates. Clinical Trial Registration. This trial is registered with CTRI/2010/091/000245. Anil Pareek, Nitin Chandurkar, Nithya Gogtay, Alaka Deshpande, Arjun Kakrani, Mala Kaneria, Partha Karmakar, Arvind Jain, Dhanpat Kochar, Arun Chogle, and Arnab Ray Copyright © 2015 Anil Pareek et al. All rights reserved.