Malaria Research and Treatment The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Long-Term Prophylaxis and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Intramuscular Nano- and Microparticle Decoquinate in Mice Infected with P. berghei Sporozoites Thu, 13 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Decoquinate nanoparticle and microparticle suspended in an oily vehicle to retard drug release are evaluated for long-term malaria prophylaxis. Pharmacokinetic studies in normal animals and antimalarial efficacy in liver stage malaria mice were conducted at various single intramuscular-decoquinate doses for 2, 4, 6, or 8 weeks prior to infection with P. berghei sporozoites. The liver stage efficacy evaluation was monitored by using an in vivo imaging system. Full causal prophylaxis was shown in mice with a single intramuscular dose at 120 mg/kg of nanoparticle decoquinate (0.43 μm) for 2-3 weeks and with microparticle decoquinate (8.31 μm) injected 8 weeks earlier than inoculation. The time above MIC of 1,375 hr observed with the microparticle formulation provided a 2.2-fold longer drug exposure than with the nanoparticle formulation (624 hr). The prophylactic effect of the microparticle formulation observed in mice was shown to be 3-4 times longer than the nanoparticle decoquinate formulation. Qigui Li, Lisa Xie, Diana Caridha, Qiang Zeng, Jing Zhang, Norma Roncal, Ping Zhang, Chau Vuong, Brittney Potter, Jason Sousa, Sean Marcsisin, Lisa Read, and Mark Hickman Copyright © 2017 Qigui Li et al. All rights reserved. Monitoring Compliance and Acceptability of Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria Using Sulfadoxine Pyrimethamine after Ten Years of Implementation in Tanzania Thu, 30 Mar 2017 08:24:45 +0000 Intermittent preventive treatment using SP (IPTp-SP) is still a superior interventional approach to control malaria during pregnancy. However its rate of use has gone down tremendously in malaria endemic areas. This study forms part of a larger study aimed at monitoring the compliance of IPTp-SP policy in malaria endemic areas of Tanzania. Two cross-sectional studies were conducted in Dar es Salaam and Njombe Regions of Tanzania. Overall, 540 pregnant women and 21 healthcare workers were interviewed using structured questionnaires. This study revealed that 63% of women were not willing to take SP during pregnancy while 91% would only take it if they tested positive for malaria during antennal visits. 63% of the interviewed women did not know the recommended dose of SP required during pregnancy, despite the fact that 82% of the women were aware of the adverse effect of malaria during pregnancy. It was found out that 54% of pregnant women (30–40 weeks) took single dose, 34% took two doses, and 16% did not take SP at the time of interview. It was also found that SP was not administered under direct observed therapy in 86% of women. There was no significant relationship between number of doses received by pregnant women and antenatal clinic (ANC) start date ( = 0.0033, 95% CI (−0.016 to 0.034)). However positive correlation between drug uptake and drug availability was revealed (). Knowledge on adverse effects of placental malaria among pregnant women was significantly associated with drug uptake (OR 11.81, 95% CI (5.755–24.23), ). We conclude that unavailability of drugs in ANC is the major reason hindering the implementation of IPTp-SP. Mdetele B. Ayubu and Winifrida B. Kidima Copyright © 2017 Mdetele B. Ayubu and Winifrida B. Kidima. All rights reserved. Statistical Methods for Predicting Malaria Incidences Using Data from Sudan Tue, 07 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Malaria is the leading cause of illness and death in Sudan. The entire population is at risk of malaria epidemics with a very high burden on government and population. The usefulness of forecasting methods in predicting the number of future incidences is needed to motivate the development of a system that can predict future incidences. The objective of this paper is to develop applicable and understood time series models and to find out what method can provide better performance to predict future incidences level. We used monthly incidence data collected from five states in Sudan with unstable malaria transmission. We test four methods of the forecast: () autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA); () exponential smoothing; () transformation model; and () moving average. The result showed that transformation method performed significantly better than the other methods for Gadaref, Gazira, North Kordofan, and Northern, while the moving average model performed significantly better for Khartoum. Future research should combine a number of different and dissimilar methods of time series to improve forecast accuracy with the ultimate aim of developing a simple and useful model for producing reasonably reliable forecasts of the malaria incidence in the study area. Hamid H. Hussien, Fathy H. Eissa, and Khidir E. Awadalla Copyright © 2017 Hamid H. Hussien et al. All rights reserved. A Weather-Based Prediction Model of Malaria Prevalence in Amenfi West District, Ghana Tue, 31 Jan 2017 09:06:14 +0000 This study investigated the effects of climatic variables, particularly, rainfall and temperature, on malaria incidence using time series analysis. Our preliminary analysis revealed that malaria incidence in the study area decreased at about 0.35% annually. Also, the month of November recorded approximately 21% more malaria cases than the other months while September had a decreased effect of about 14%. The forecast model developed for this investigation indicated that mean minimum () and maximum () monthly temperatures lagged at three months were significant predictors of malaria incidence while rainfall was not. Diagnostic tests using Ljung-Box and ARCH-LM tests revealed that the model developed was adequate for forecasting. Forecast values for 2016 to 2020 generated by our model suggest a possible future decline in malaria incidence. This goes to suggest that intervention strategies put in place by some nongovernmental and governmental agencies to combat the disease are effective and thus should be encouraged and routinely monitored to yield more desirable outcomes. Esther Love Darkoh, John Aseidu Larbi, and Eric Adjei Lawer Copyright © 2017 Esther Love Darkoh et al. All rights reserved. Nonobese Diabetic (NOD) Mice Lack a Protective B-Cell Response against the “Nonlethal” Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL Malaria Protozoan Thu, 15 Dec 2016 11:52:22 +0000 Background. Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL is a nonlethal malaria strain in mice of different genetic backgrounds including the C57BL/6 mice () used in this study as a control strain. We have compared the trends of blood stage infection with the nonlethal murine strain of P. yoelii 17XNL malaria protozoan in immunocompetent Nonobese Diabetic (NOD) mice prone to type 1 diabetes (T1D) and C57BL/6 mice (control mice) that are not prone to T1D and self-cure the P. yoelii 17XNL infection. Prediabetic NOD mice could not mount a protective antibody response to the P. yoelii 17XNL-infected red blood cells (iRBCs), and they all succumbed shortly after infection. Our data suggest that the lack of anti-P. yoelii 17XNL-iRBCs protective antibodies in NOD mice is a result of parasite-induced, Foxp3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells able to suppress the parasite-specific antibody secretion. Conclusions. The NOD mouse model may help in identifying new mechanisms of B-cell evasion by malaria parasites. It may also serve as a more accurate tool for testing antimalaria therapeutics due to the lack of interference with a preexistent self-curing mechanism present in other mouse strains. Mirian Mendoza, Luis Pow Sang, Qi Qiu, Sofia Casares, and Teodor-D. Brumeanu Copyright © 2016 Mirian Mendoza et al. All rights reserved. Burden of Placental Malaria among Pregnant Women Who Use or Do Not Use Intermittent Preventive Treatment at Mulago Hospital, Kampala Tue, 13 Dec 2016 09:28:29 +0000 Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP-IPTp) is widely used to reduce the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes. As a monitor for continued effectiveness of this intervention amidst SP resistance, we aimed to assess malaria burden among pregnant women who use or do not use SP-IPTp. In a descriptive cohort study at Mulago Hospital, Kampala, 87 women who received two supervised doses of SP-IPTp were followed up until delivery. Controls were pregnant women presenting in early labour without history of SP-IPTp. Histopathological investigation for placental malaria (PM) was performed using the Bulmer classification criterion. Thirty-eight of the 87 women returned for delivery and 33 placentas were successfully collected and processed along with 33 placentas from SP nonusers. Overall, 12% (4/33) of the users had evidence of PM compared to 48% (16/33) of nonusers. Among nonusers, 17/33, 8/33, 2/33, and 6/33 had no placental infection, active infection, active-chronic infection, and past-chronic infection, respectively. Among users, respective proportions were 29/33, 2/33, 0/33, and 2/33. No difference in birth weights was apparent between the two groups, probably due to a higher proportion of infections occurring later in pregnancy. Histological evidence here suggests that SP continues to offer substantial benefit as IPTp. Charles Okot Odongo, Michael Odida, Henry Wabinga, Celestino Obua, and Josaphat Byamugisha Copyright © 2016 Charles Okot Odongo et al. All rights reserved. Inhibition of In Vivo Growth of Plasmodium berghei by Launaea taraxacifolia and Amaranthus viridis in Mice Mon, 05 Dec 2016 13:00:12 +0000 Launaea taraxacifolia and Amaranthus viridis used by people of Western Africa in the treatment of malaria and related symptoms were assessed for their antiplasmodial value against the chloroquine sensitive strain of Plasmodium berghei. Crude extracts (200 mg/kg) and chloroquine (5 mg/kg) were administered to different groups of Swiss mice. The percentage of parasitemia, survival time, and haematological parameters were determined. Both extracts significantly () inhibited parasitemia and improved survival time in infected mice. The crude extracts prevented loss of some haematological parameters. A. viridis had a distinct effect on the packed cell volume. The extract was able to protect the liver from some of the damage. This study however showed that the methanolic extracts of A. viridis and L. taraxacifolia possess antiplasmodial activity. The results of this study can be used as a basis for further phytochemical investigations in the search for new and locally affordable antimalarial agents. Adewale Adetutu, Olubukola S. Olorunnisola, Abiodun O. Owoade, and Peter Adegbola Copyright © 2016 Adewale Adetutu et al. All rights reserved. Maternal Attitudes about Objectively Monitored Bednet Use in Rural Uganda Wed, 19 Oct 2016 08:52:28 +0000 Insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) are a mainstay of malaria prevention, yet poor adherence poses a major barrier to effective prevention. Self-reports of bednet use suffer from recall and social desirability biases. We have designed a device that electronically records ITN usage longitudinally. SmartNet consists of circuits made from a conductive fabric interwoven into the sides and top of a rectangular ITN. Digital sampling of the state of these circuits allows for determining whether the SmartNet is deployed for use or folded up. We conducted a study among pregnant women and women with children <5 years in Uganda to determine attitudes about objective bednet monitoring and SmartNet. Fifty women were interviewed with an average age of 27 years and 2.3 children. Twenty-two percent were pregnant. Ninety-five percent had used a bednet and 90% reported having a bednet at home. After displaying a SmartNet, 92% thought it would be easy to use and 100% expressed interest in using SmartNet. Concerns about SmartNet included washing the net, worries about being monitored while asleep, and worries about users removing the device components. Objective monitoring of ITN use appears to be acceptable among women in rural Uganda, setting the stage for further SmartNet field testing. Paul J. Krezanoski, Data Santorino, Nuriat Nambogo, Jeffrey I. Campbell, and David R. Bangsberg Copyright © 2016 Paul J. Krezanoski et al. All rights reserved. Cost-Effectiveness and Validity Assessment of Cyscope Microscope, Quantitative Buffy Coat Microscope, and Rapid Diagnostic Kit for Malaria Diagnosis among Clinic Attendees in Ibadan, Nigeria Thu, 14 Jul 2016 16:05:34 +0000 Background. Unavailability of accurate, rapid, reliable, and cost-effective malaria diagnostic instruments constitutes major a challenge to malaria elimination. We validated alternative malaria diagnostic instruments and assessed their comparative cost-effectiveness. Method. Using a cross-sectional study design, 502 patients with malaria symptoms at selected health facilities in Ibadan between January and April 2014 were recruited consecutively. We examined malaria parasites using Cyscope®, QBC, and CareStart™ and results were compared to light microscopy (LM). Validity was determined by assessing sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). Costs per hour of use for instruments and turnaround time were determined. Result. Sensitivity of the instruments was 76.0% (CareStart), 95.0% (Cyscope), and 98.1% (QBC). Specificity was 96.0% (CareStart), 87.3% (Cyscope), and 85.5% (QBC). PPV were 65.2%, 67.5%, and 84.7%, while NPV were 93.6%, 98.6%, and 99.4% for CareStart, Cyscope, and QBC with Kappa values of 0.75 (CI = 0.68–0.82) for CareStart, 0.72 (CI = 0.65–0.78) for Cyscope, and 0.71 (CI = 0.64–0.77) for QBC. Average cost per hour of use was the lowest ($2.04) with the Cyscope. Turnaround time was the fastest with Cyscope (5 minutes). Conclusion. Cyscope fluorescent microscope had the shortest turnaround time and is the most cost-effective of all the malaria diagnostic instruments evaluated. Abiodun Ogunniyi, Magbagbeola David Dairo, Hannah Dada-Adegbola, Ikeoluwapo O. Ajayi, Adebola Olayinka, Wellington A. Oyibo, Olufunmilayo I. Fawole, and Olufemi Ajumobi Copyright © 2016 Abiodun Ogunniyi et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Long Lasting Insecticide Bed Net Use on Malaria Prevalence in the Tombel Health District, South West Region-Cameroon Wed, 15 Jun 2016 13:49:59 +0000 Malaria remains a major public health problem in Africa, and its prevalence in Cameroon stands at 29%. Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs) were distributed in 2011 to reduce malaria mortality and morbidity; however, assessment of this intervention is scanty. The present study in the Tombel health district (THD) investigated the impact of this distribution on malaria prevalence. A total of 31,657 hospital records from 3 health facilities in 3 health areas for 2010–2013 were examined. Records for 2010 and 2011 provided predistribution baseline data, while those of 2012 and 2013 represented postdistribution data. 8,679 (27.4%) patients were positive for malaria. Children below 5 years had the highest prevalence (40.7%). The number of confirmed cases was highest from June to August (peak rainy season). Malaria prevalence was higher in males (25.3%) than in females (23.2%). Malaria prevalence increased in THD from 26.7% in 2010 to 30.7% in 2011 but dropped to 22.7% in 2012 and then increased in 2013 to 29.5%. There was an overall drop in the total number of confirmed malaria cases in 2012; this decrease was significant in Ebonji () and Nyasoso () health areas. The distribution of LLINs led to a short lived reduction in malaria prevalence in THD. LLIN distribution and other control activities should be reinforced to keep malaria prevalence low especially among the 0–5-year group. Eric B. Fokam, Kevin T. J. Dzi, Leonard Ngimuh, and Peter Enyong Copyright © 2016 Eric B. Fokam et al. All rights reserved. Increased Prevalence of Mutant Allele Pfdhps 437G and Pfdhfr Triple Mutation in Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from a Rural Area of Gabon, Three Years after the Change of Malaria Treatment Policy Sun, 17 Apr 2016 12:11:47 +0000 In Gabon, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is recommended for intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp-SP) and for uncomplicated malaria treatment through ACTs drug. P. falciparum strains resistant to SP are frequent in areas where this drug is highly used and is associated with the occurrence of mutations on Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthetase (Pfdhps) genes. The aim of the study was to compare the proportion of mutations on Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes in isolates collected at Oyem in northern Gabon, in 2005 at the time of IPTp-SP introduction and three years later. Point mutations were analyzed by nested PCR-RFLP method. Among 91 isolates, more than 90% carried Pfdhfr 108N and Pfdhfr 59R alleles. Frequencies of Pfdhfr 51I (98%) and Pfdhps 437G (67.7%) mutant alleles were higher in 2008. Mutations at codons 164, 540, and 581 were not detected. The proportion of the triple Pfdhfr mutation and quadruple mutation including A437G was high: 91.9% in 2008 and 64.8% in 2008, respectively. The present study highlights an elevated frequency of Pfdhfr and Pfdhps mutant alleles, although quintuple mutations were not found in north Gabon. These data suggest the need of a continuous monitoring of SP resistance in Gabon. Jacques-Mari Ndong Ngomo, Denise Patricia Mawili-Mboumba, Noé Patrick M’Bondoukwe, Rosalie Nikiéma Ndong Ella, and Marielle Karine Bouyou Akotet Copyright © 2016 Jacques-Mari Ndong Ngomo et al. All rights reserved. Assessing the Role of Climate Change in Malaria Transmission in Africa Tue, 15 Mar 2016 11:33:59 +0000 The sensitivity of vector borne diseases like malaria to climate continues to raise considerable concern over the implications of climate change on future disease dynamics. The problem of malaria vectors shifting from their traditional locations to invade new zones is of important concern. A mathematical model incorporating rainfall and temperature is constructed to study the transmission dynamics of malaria. The reproduction number obtained is applied to gridded temperature and rainfall datasets for baseline climate and future climate with aid of GIS. As a result of climate change, malaria burden is likely to increase in the tropics, the highland regions, and East Africa and along the northern limit of falciparum malaria. Falciparum malaria will spread into the African highlands; however it is likely to die out at the southern limit of the disease. E. T. Ngarakana-Gwasira, C. P. Bhunu, M. Masocha, and E. Mashonjowa Copyright © 2016 E. T. Ngarakana-Gwasira et al. All rights reserved. Severe Malaria Associated with Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax among Children in Pawe Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia Mon, 07 Mar 2016 09:34:57 +0000 Despite rigorous effort made to control malaria for more than a century, it is still among the main public health problems in least developed regions of the world. Majority of deaths associated with malaria occur in sub-Sahara Africa among biologically risked groups. Thus, this study was designed to assess the incidence of severe malaria syndromes among children in Pawe Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Children seeking medication for malaria infection in Pawe Hospital during the study period were recruited. Sociodemographic characteristics, physical, hematological, and clinical features of complicated malaria were assessed following standard parasitological and clinical procedures. A total of 263 children were found malaria positive. Among these, 200 were infected with Plasmodium falciparum. Most of the severe malaria symptoms were observed among children infected with P. falciparum and P. vivax. The study showed that significant number of the children developed severe life threatening malaria complications. This calls for prompt early diagnosis and effective treatment of patients to reduce mortality and complications associated with malaria in the study site. Getachew Geleta and Tsige Ketema Copyright © 2016 Getachew Geleta and Tsige Ketema. All rights reserved. Improving Access to Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test in Niger State, Nigeria: An Assessment of Implementation up to 2013 Sun, 06 Mar 2016 14:03:32 +0000 Nigeria’s 2009–2013 malaria strategic plan adopted WHO diagnosis and treatment guidelines, which include the use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) prior to prescribing treatment with artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs). The current study explores accessibility barriers to the use of RDTs in Niger State and makes recommendations for improving the uptake of RDTs. The study employs literature review, review of data from the Niger State Health Management Information System for January–October 2013, and application of Peters’ conceptual framework for assessing access to health services. Data showed that 27 percent of public health facilities (HFs) implemented RDTs, with the aid of donor funds. In these facilities, 77 percent of fever cases presented during the study period were tested with RDTs; 53 percent of fever cases were confirmed cases of malaria, while 60 percent of fever cases were treated. Stockouts of RDTs were a major constraint, and severe fever tended to trigger presumptive treatment. We conclude that although implementation of RDTs led to a reduction in the use of ACTs at HFs, more substantial reduction could be achieved if the state government directed more resources towards the acquisition of RDTs as well as raising the level of awareness of potential users. Olatunji Joshua Awoleye and Chris Thron Copyright © 2016 Olatunji Joshua Awoleye and Chris Thron. All rights reserved. High Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Asymptomatic Individuals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo Thu, 28 Jan 2016 13:53:23 +0000 Malaria remains a major public health problem in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) with 14 million cases reported by the WHO Malaria Report in 2014. Asymptomatic malaria cases are known to be prevalent in endemic areas and are generally untreated, resulting in a significant source of gametocytes that may serve as reservoir of disease transmission. Considering that microscopy certainly underestimates the prevalence of Plasmodium infections within asymptomatic carriers and that PCR assays are currently recognized as the most sensitive methods for Plasmodium identification, this study was conducted to weigh the asymptomatic carriage in DRC by a molecular method. Six provinces were randomly selected for blood collection in which 80 to 100 individuals were included in the study. Five hundred and eighty blood samples were collected and molecular diagnosis was performed. Globally, almost half of the samples collected from asymptomatic individuals (280/580; 48.2%) had Plasmodium infections and the most species identified was P. falciparum alone in combination with P. malariae. The high prevalence reported here should interpellate the bodies involved in malaria control in DR Congo to take into account asymptomatic carriers in actions taken and consider asymptomatic malaria as a major hurdle for malaria elimination. Dieudonné Makaba Mvumbi, Thierry Lengu Bobanga, Pierrette Melin, Patrick De Mol, Jean-Marie Ntumba Kayembe, Hippolyte Nani-Tuma Situakibanza, Georges Lelo Mvumbi, Célestin Ndosimao Nsibu, Solange Efundu Umesumbu, and Marie-Pierre Hayette Copyright © 2016 Dieudonné Makaba Mvumbi et al. All rights reserved. Assessing ABO/Rh Blood Group Frequency and Association with Asymptomatic Malaria among Blood Donors Attending Arba Minch Blood Bank, South Ethiopia Wed, 27 Jan 2016 11:03:40 +0000 Background. Determination of the various ABO/Rh blood group distributions and their association with malaria infection has paramount importance in the context of transfusion medicine and malaria control. Methods. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June, 2015, to assess ABO/Rh blood groups distribution and their association with asymptomatic malaria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Blood grouping was done using monoclonal antibodies. Thin and thick blood films were examined for Plasmodium parasites. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results. A total of 416 blood donors participated with median age of (median ± standard error of the mean). Distribution of ABO phenotypes, in decreasing order, was O (175, 42.1%), A (136, 32.7%), B (87, 20.9%), and AB (18, 4.3%). Most of them were Rh+ (386, 92.8%). The overall malaria prevalence was 4.1% (17/416). ABO blood group is significantly associated with malaria infection (). High rate of parasitemia was seen in blood group O donors (6.899, ) compared to those with other ABO blood groups. Conclusion. Blood groups O and AB phenotypes are the most and the least ABO blood groups, respectively. There is significant association between ABO blood group and asymptomatic malaria parasitemia. Getaneh Alemu and Mohammedaman Mama Copyright © 2016 Getaneh Alemu and Mohammedaman Mama. All rights reserved. Acceptance and Utilisation of Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine and Insecticide-Treated Nets among Pregnant Women in Oyo State, Nigeria Tue, 29 Dec 2015 11:45:07 +0000 The study is an investigation of the acceptance and utilisation of Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (Fansidar), the drug of choice for Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnancy, and Insecticide-Treated Nets among pregnant women who access different health facilities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Pregnant women (582) attending government primary healthcare antenatal clinics and 50 attending faith clinics purposively selected responded to structured instruments that were analysed using percentages, -test correlation, and multiple regression. Acceptance and utilisation of RBM tools were higher in government clinics than faith clinics and in rural areas. Pregnant women in government clinics, 60.8% and 66.8%, and faith clinics, 18% and 38.0%, utilised Roll Back Malaria tools, significant at , , and , , respectively. Pregnant women in rural locations who accessed government clinics utilised Roll Back Malaria tools more than those in urban areas, , . Number of pregnancies, educational qualification of the pregnant women, and marital status significantly and consistently influenced acceptance and utilisation of these tools. To ensure that set targets are met, the utilization of RBM tools among the two categories of pregnant women can be improved by increasing the supply of the tools and ensuring that treatment is free. Aderonke A. Adeola and Eugenia A. Okwilagwe Copyright © 2015 Aderonke A. Adeola and Eugenia A. Okwilagwe. All rights reserved. Trend Analysis of Malaria Occurrence in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia: Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study Mon, 07 Dec 2015 11:19:00 +0000 Background. Malaria is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. The trend of malaria occurrence remains unknown in the study area. This study is aimed at determining the last five years’ trend of malaria occurrence from 2008/09 to 2012/13 in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods. A health facility-based retrospective study was conducted in Wolaita Zone from March to August, 2014. Five years’ laboratory confirmed malaria record review was made from six health centers. Result. A total of 105,755 laboratory confirmed malaria cases were reported, with total slide positivity rate of 33.27% and mean annual occurrence of 21,151 cases. Malaria occurred with a fluctuating trend in the study area, with its peak occurring at the year 2011/12. Overall, no remarkable decline in the total laboratory confirmed malaria was observed in the last five years. P. falciparum was the predominantly reported species, accounting for 75,929 (71.80%) of cases. The highest slide positivity rate was observed in the age group of 5–14 years (40.5%) followed by 1–4 years (35.5%). Two malaria peak seasons occurred: one from September to December and the other from April to June. Conclusion. No remarkable decline in laboratory confirmed malaria in the last five years was observed. Deresse Legesse, Yusuf Haji, and Solomon Abreha Copyright © 2015 Deresse Legesse et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Trend of Malaria Prevalence in the Ten Asian Countries from 2006 to 2011: A Longitudinal Study Sun, 29 Nov 2015 07:46:16 +0000 Background. To control the malaria mortality, the global and national communities have worked together and produced impressive results in the world. Some of the Asian counties’ malaria mortality rate is more compared to countries with high health facilities around the world. This paper’s main aim is to describe trend of malaria cases and mortality in 10 Asian countries using the World Health Organization data. Methods. Malaria mortality data was collected systematically from WHO and UN database for the period 2006–2011. We estimated malaria mortality by age and countries. We also explored the dynamic relationships among malaria death rate, total populations, and geographical region using a map. During 2006–2011, the average malaria death per 10,000 population of all ages was 0.239 (95% CI 0.104 to 0.373), of children aged less than 5 year 1.143 (0.598 to 1.687), and of age greater than 5 years 0.089 (0.043 to 0.137) in Asian countries. Malaria prevalence per 10,000 populations steadily decreased from 486.7 in 2006 to 298.9 in 2011. Conclusion. The findings show that malaria mortality is higher for children aged less than 5 years compared with with adults selected in Asian countries except Sri Lanka. Shongkour Roy and Tanjina Khatun Copyright © 2015 Shongkour Roy and Tanjina Khatun. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria among Pregnant Students in Dodoma Region, Tanzania: No Cases Have Been Detected Thu, 19 Nov 2015 12:34:54 +0000 Malaria in pregnancy, being often asymptomatic, is a major problem in endemic African countries. It is characterized by anemia and placental malaria leading to poor pregnancy outcomes. In 2001 Tanzania adopted an intermittent-preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) policy, which recommends receiving doses of antimalarial drugs every planned visit to the antenatal care centre (ANC), starting from the second trimester. Currently the policy is valid across the whole country, regardless that there are regions with very low malaria endemicity in Tanzania, such as Dodoma region. The current study aimed to show the real prevalence of malaria among young pregnant women in Dodoma region, by measuring the prevalence of malaria among University of Dodoma (UDOM) students, and to describe the social health care features of student female community. Two methods of malaria diagnostic, microscopy, and rapid test, as well as retrospective inspection of ANC registry book, showed the very low prevalence of malaria disease among pregnant students, approximately 0.3%. Additionally, the sociodemographic data from the questionnaires showed that all students use different malaria preventive measures, and most of them have the regular sexual partner. This fact approves the correlation between illiteracy of woman and the risk of malaria infection transmission. Karen N. Zablon, Charles Kakilla, Tatiana Lykina, Victoria Minakova, Alphaxad Chibago, and Zanda Bochkaeva Copyright © 2015 Karen N. Zablon et al. All rights reserved. Population-Based Seroprevalence of Malaria in Hormozgan Province, Southeastern Iran: A Low Transmission Area Mon, 12 Oct 2015 11:19:03 +0000 The seroepidemiological condition of malaria in three main districts of Hormozgan Province, a low transmission area in southeast of Iran, was investigated. Methods. Sera samples (803) were collected from healthy volunteers from the three main districts (Bandar Lengeh in the west, Bandar Abbas in the center, and Bandar Jask in the east) of Hormozgan Province. A questionnaire was used to record the sociodemographic features of the participants during sample collecting. An in-house ELISA test, using crude antigens obtained from cell culture of Plasmodium falciparum, was adapted and used to detect anti-malaria antibodies in the sera. Results. The overall seroprevalence of malaria was 8.7% (70 out of 803 samples). A significant correlation was found between seropositivity and place of residence, where the highest rate of seropositivity was seen in Bandar Lengeh (west of the province). The highest seroprevalence of malaria (13.2%) was seen in the age group of 11–20 years and also in low educated individuals. Correlation between seropositivity and gender, age, and educational levels of the participants was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Findings of this study indicate that the rate of seropositivity to malaria in this area is not high and this might be linked to the success of malaria control programs during the last decades in the region. Gholam Reza Hatam, Fatemeh Nejati, Tahereh Mohammadzadeh, Reza Shahriari Rad, and Bahador Sarkari Copyright © 2015 Gholam Reza Hatam et al. All rights reserved. Sustained Release Formulation of Primaquine for Prevention of Relapse of Plasmodium vivax Malaria: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Comparative, Multicentric Study Thu, 20 Aug 2015 14:51:25 +0000 Background. Primaquine is used to eradicate latent Plasmodium vivax parasite from liver, with administration of standard dose daily up to 14 days. We studied efficacy, safety, and tolerability of sustained release (SR) formulation of primaquine in comparison with conventional primaquine in preventing relapse of P. vivax malaria. Methods. Microscopically confirmed cases of P. vivax malaria received chloroquine therapy for three days. Aparasitemic and asymptomatic patients were then randomized to receive either conventional primaquine 15 mg for 14 days or primaquine SR 15 mg for 14 days, or primaquine SR 30 mg for seven days. Results. Of the 360 patients, who received chloroquine therapy, 358 patients were randomized. Two-hundred eighty-eight patients completed six-month follow-up and four patients (three: conventional primaquine 15 mg (2.86%), one: primaquine SR 30 mg (0.93%)) showed relapse confirmed by PCR genotyping. Drug compliance was significantly better in primaquine SR 30 mg group (95.57%, ) without any serious adverse events. Conclusion. Primaquine SR 15 mg and primaquine SR 30 mg could be an effective alternative to conventional primaquine 15 mg due to their comparable cure rates and safety profile. Shorter treatment duration with primaquine SR 30 mg may increase patient compliance and may further reduce relapse rates. Clinical Trial Registration. This trial is registered with CTRI/2010/091/000245. Anil Pareek, Nitin Chandurkar, Nithya Gogtay, Alaka Deshpande, Arjun Kakrani, Mala Kaneria, Partha Karmakar, Arvind Jain, Dhanpat Kochar, Arun Chogle, and Arnab Ray Copyright © 2015 Anil Pareek et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy and Safety of Artesunate-Amodiaquine versus Artemether-Lumefantrine in the Treatment of Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Sentinel Sites across Côte d’Ivoire Wed, 12 Aug 2015 06:31:41 +0000 Two years after the introduction of free Artesunate-Amodiaquine (ASAQ) and Artemether-Lumefantrine (AL) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in public health facilities in Côte d’Ivoire, we carried out this study to compare their efficacy and tolerability in three surveillance sites. It was a multicentre open randomised clinical trial of 3-day ASAQ treatment against AL for the treatment of 2 parallel groups of patients aged 2 years and above. The endpoints were (1) Adequate Clinical and Parasitological Response (ACPR) at day 28 and (2) the clinical and biological tolerability. Of the 300 patients who were enrolled 289, with 143 (49.5%) and 146 (50.5%) in the ASAQ and AL groups, respectively, correctly followed the WHO 2003 protocol we used. The PCR-corrected ACPR was 99.3% for each group. More than 94% of patients no longer showed signs of fever, 48 hours after treatment. Approximately 78% of the people in the ASAQ group had a parasite clearance time of 48 hours or less compared to 81% in the AL group (). Both drugs were found to be well tolerated by the patients. This study demonstrates the effectiveness and tolerability of ASAQ and AL supporting their continuous use for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria infection in Côte d’Ivoire. William Yavo, Abibatou Konaté, Fulgence Kondo Kassi, Vincent Djohan, Etienne Kpongbo Angora, Pulcherie Christiane Kiki-Barro, Henriette Vanga-Bosson, and Eby Ignace Hervé Menan Copyright © 2015 William Yavo et al. All rights reserved. Coagulation and Fibrinolysis Indicators and Placental Malaria Infection in an Area Characterized by Unstable Malaria Transmission in Central Sudan Thu, 30 Jul 2015 14:09:59 +0000 This study aimed to investigate coagulation, fibrinolysis indicators, and malaria during pregnancy. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Medani, Sudan. Sociodemographic characteristics were gathered from each parturient woman (163) and malaria was investigated by blood film and placental histology. Protein C, protein S, antithrombin-III, tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels (PAI-1) were measured using ELISA. Results. One (0.6%), three (1.8), and 19 (11.7%) of the placentae showed active, chronic, and past infection on a histopathological examination, respectively, while 140 (85.9%) of them showed no signs of malaria infection. While the mean [SD] of the protein C, antithrombin-III, and TFPI was significantly lower, there was no significant difference in protein S and PAI-1 levels in women with placental malaria infection () compared to those without placental malaria infection (140). In linear regression, placental malaria infection was associated with antithrombin-III. There was no association between placental malaria infections and protein C, protein S, TFPI, and PAI-1 levels. There was no association between hemoglobin, birth weight, and the investigated coagulation and fibrinolysis indicators. Conclusion. This study showed significantly lower levels of protein C, antithrombin-III, and TFPI in women with placental malaria infections. Amged G. Mostafa, Naser E. Bilal, Awad-Elkareem Abass, Elhassan M. Elhassan, Ahmed A. Mohmmed, and Ishag Adam Copyright © 2015 Amged G. Mostafa et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of Control Measures and Trends of Malaria in Burie-Zuria District, West Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region, North West Ethiopia Wed, 10 Jun 2015 08:08:06 +0000 Introduction. Malaria is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium and transmitted by the bite of Anopheles mosquitoes. The aim of this study was to assess control measures and trends of malaria and guide intervention measures at Burie-Zuria district, Amhara region. Methods. Descriptive cross-sectional assessment of control measures was undertaken. We used health facility records of malaria data. We surveyed households for clinical malaria cases and utilization of Long Lasting Impregnated Nets (LLINs) and its status; the condition of Indore Residual Spraying (IRS) operation at household level was observed. Results. In Zelma-Shenbekuma kebele (village) the prevalence rate of confirmed malaria cases in the 2nd week of September was 1.2 per 1000 (17) of population and increased to 11.5 per 1000 (163) of population in the 3rd week of September 2012 and reached 16.6 per 1000 (236) of population in the 1st week of November 2012. The attack rate was the highest in 1-<5 years 120.3 per 1000 (1920) of population. LLINs were distributed four years back and only five of the fifteen respondents knew about the use of LLINs and used it regularly. Four of the fifteen households were not sprayed with IRS. Conclusion. Vector control interventions were not carried out timely. Addisu Workineh Kassa, Mulugojjam Andualem Tamiru, and Addisu Gize Yeshanew Copyright © 2015 Addisu Workineh Kassa et al. All rights reserved. Malaria Parasite Density Estimated with White Blood Cells Count Reference Value Agrees with Density Estimated with Absolute in Children Less Than 5 Years in Central Ghana Tue, 07 Apr 2015 17:25:07 +0000 Introduction. The estimation of malaria parasite density using a microscope heavily relies on White Blood Cells (WBCs) counts. An assumed WBCs count of 8000/µL has been accepted as reasonably accurate in estimating malaria parasite densities due to the challenge to accurately determine WBCs count. Method. The study used 4944 pieces of laboratory data of consented participants of age group less than 5 years. The study compared parasite densities of absolute WBCs, assumed WBCs, and the WBCs reference values in Central Ghana. Ethical approvals were given by three ethics committees. Results. The mean (±SD) WBCs and geometric mean parasite density (GMPD) were 10500/µL (±4.1) and 10644/µL (95% CI 9986/µL to 11346/µL), respectively. The difference in the GMPD compared using absolute WBCs and densities of assumed WBCs was significantly lower. The difference in GMPD obtained with an assumed WBCs count and that of the WBCs reference values for the study area, 10400/µL and 9200/µL for children in different age groups, were not significant. Discussion. Significant errors could result when assumed WBCs count is used to estimate malaria parasite density in children. GMPD generated with WBCs reference values statistically agreed with density from the absolute WBCs. When obtaining absolute WBC is not possible, the reference value can be used to estimate parasite density. Dennis Adu-Gyasi, Kwaku Poku Asante, Sam Newton, Sabastina Amoako, David Dosoo, Love Ankrah, George Adjei, Seeba Amenga-Etego, and Seth Owusu-Agyei Copyright © 2015 Dennis Adu-Gyasi et al. All rights reserved. A Pharmacokinetic Study of Antimalarial 3,5-Diaryl-2-aminopyridine Derivatives Sun, 29 Mar 2015 14:06:26 +0000 Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for approximately 80% of the incidence and 90% of deaths which occur in the World Health Organization (WHO) African region, with children and pregnant women having the highest incidence. P. falciparum has developed resistance, and therefore new effective candidate antimalarial drugs need to be developed. Previous studies identified 3,5-diaryl-2-aminopyridines as potential antimalarial drug candidates; therefore, derivatives of these compounds were synthesized in order to improve their desired properties and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of the derivatives were investigated in a mouse model which was dosed orally and intravenously. Collected blood samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS). The mean peak plasma level of 1.9 μM was obtained at 1 hour for compound 1 and 3.3 μM at 0.5 hours for compound 2. A decline in concentration was observed with a half-life of 2.53 and 0.87 hours for compound 1 in mice dosed orally and intravenously, respectively. For compound 2 a half-life of 2.96 and 0.68 hours was recorded. The bioavailability was 69% and 59.7% for compound 1 and compound 2, respectively. Ntokozo Dambuza, Peter Smith, Alicia Evans, Dale Taylor, Kelly Chibale, and Lubbe Wiesner Copyright © 2015 Ntokozo Dambuza et al. All rights reserved. Entomological Investigations on Malaria Vectors in Some War-Torn Areas in the Trincomalee District of Sri Lanka after Settlement of 30-Year Civil Disturbance Thu, 19 Feb 2015 06:22:21 +0000 Background. Malaria was an endemic problem in Trincomalee District, Eastern Province of Sri Lanka. Very few recent data concerning Anopheles are available which transmit malaria. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify various Anopheles species and the dynamics of anophelines including malaria vectors in Trincomalee District for effective vector control under the current malaria elimination program embarked in the country. Method. Entomological surveys were conducted on a monthly basis, using five entomological techniques, namely, indoor hand collection (HC), window trap collection (WTC), cattle-baited net collection (CBNC), and cattle-baited hut collection (CBHC) from June 2010 to June 2012 in 32 study areas under five entomological sentinel sites. Results. Seventeen anopheline species were encountered, of which Anopheles subpictus was the predominant species in all sampling methods. It is noted that A. culicifacies and A. subpictus have adapted to breed in polluted water in urban settings which may cause serious implications on the epidemiology of malaria in the country. Conclusions. It is important to determine the abundance, biology, distribution, and relationship with climatic factors of main and secondary malaria vectors in Sri Lanka in order to initiate evidence based controlling programs under the current malaria elimination program in Sri Lanka. Nayana Gunathilaka, Menaka Hapugoda, Wimaladharma Abeyewickreme, and Rajitha Wickremasinghe Copyright © 2015 Nayana Gunathilaka et al. All rights reserved. Patient Related Factors Affecting Adherence to Antimalarial Medication in an Urban Estate in Ghana Thu, 12 Feb 2015 13:47:11 +0000 Our aim was to measure the adherence to Artemisinin based Combination Therapy and to determine patient related factors that affect adherence. Three hundred (300) patients receiving ACT treatment dispensed from the community pharmacy were randomly selected and followed up on the fourth day after the start of their three-day therapy to assess adherence. Adherence was measured by pill count. Quantitative interviews using a semistructured questionnaire were used to assess patients’ knowledge and beliefs on malaria and its treatment. Adherence levels to the ACTs were 57.3%. Patient related factors that affected adherence to ACTs were patients’ knowledge on the dosage (; ), efficacy (; ), and side effects (; ) of the ACTs used for the management of malaria, patients’ awareness of the consequences of not completing the doses of antimalarial dispensed (; ), and patients’ belief that “natural remedies are safer than medicines” and “prescribers place too much trust in medicines.” There was no significant relationship between adherence and patients’ knowledge on the causes, signs, and symptoms of malaria. There is the need for pharmacy staff to stress on these variables when counseling patients on antimalarials as these affect adherence levels. Alexandria O. Amponsah, Helen Vosper, and Afia F. A. Marfo Copyright © 2015 Alexandria O. Amponsah et al. All rights reserved. Occurrence of pfatpase6 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Artemisinin Resistance among Field Isolates of Plasmodium falciparum in North-Eastern Tanzania Mon, 05 Jan 2015 13:47:07 +0000 We aimed to determine the current prevalence of four P. falciparum candidate artemisinin resistance biomarkers L263E, E431K, A623E, and S769N in the pfatpase6 gene in a high transmission area in Tanzania in a retrospective cross sectional study using 154 archived samples collected from three previous malaria studies in 2010, 2011 and 2013. Mutations in pfatpase6 gene were detected in parasite DNA isolated from Dried Blood Spots by using PCR-RFLP. We observed overall allelic frequencies for L263E, E431K, A623E, and S769N to be 5.8% (9/154), 16.2% (25/154), 0.0% (0/154), and 3.9% (6/154). The L263E mutation was not detected in 2010 but occurred at 3.9% and 2.6% in 2011 and 2013 respectively. The L263E mutation showed a significant change of frequency between 2010 and 2011, but not between 2011 and 2013 . Frequency of E431K was highest of all without any clear trend whereas S769N increased from 2.2% in 2010 to 3.6% in 2011 and 5.1% in 2013. A623E mutation was not detected. The worrisome detection and the increase in the frequency of S769N and other mutations calls for urgent assessment of temporal changes of known artemisinin biomarkers in association with in vivo ACT efficacy. Jaffu Chilongola, Arnold Ndaro, Hipolite Tarimo, Tamara Shedrack, Sakurani Barthazary, Robert Kaaya, Alutu Masokoto, Debora Kajeguka, Reginald A. Kavishe, and John Lusingu Copyright © 2015 Jaffu Chilongola et al. All rights reserved.