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Modelling and Simulation in Engineering
Volume 2007, Article ID 28456, 8 pages
Research Article

Real-Time Vocal Tract Modelling

1Electronic Engineering Department, College of Technology, Dammam 31472, P.O. Box 7650, Saudi Arabia
2School of Engineering and Electronics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JL, UK

Received 11 March 2007; Accepted 30 December 2007

Academic Editor: Ewa Pietka

Copyright © 2007 A. Benkrid et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


To date, most speech synthesis techniques have relied upon the representation of the vocal tract by some form of filter, a typical example being linear predictive coding (LPC). This paper describes the development of a physiologically realistic model of the vocal tract using the well-established technique of transmission line modelling (TLM). This technique is based on the principle of wave scattering at transmission line segment boundaries and may be used in one, two, or three dimensions. This work uses this technique to model the vocal tract using a one-dimensional transmission line. A six-port scattering node is applied in the region separating the pharyngeal, oral, and the nasal parts of the vocal tract.