Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Modelling and Simulation in Engineering
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 419087, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/419087
Research Article

Determination of Flow Conditions in Coronary Bifurcation Lesions in the Context of the Medina Classification

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada H3A 0C3
2Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal, QC, Canada H1T 1C8
3Quebec Heart-Lung Institute, Laval Hospital, Quebec City, QC, Canada G1V 4G5
4Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada G1V 0A6

Received 10 January 2012; Accepted 3 March 2012

Academic Editor: Guan Heng Yeoh

Copyright © 2012 Marjan Molavi Zarandi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. I. H. Tanboga, M. Ekinci, T. Isik, M. Kurt, A. Kaya, and S. Sevimli, “Reproducibility of syntax score: from core lab to real world,” Journal of Interventional Cardiology, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 302–306, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. F. Zhang, L. Dong, and J. Ge, “Simple versus complex stenting strategy for coronary artery bifurcation lesions in the drug-eluting stent era: a meta-analysis of randomised trials,” Heart, vol. 95, no. 20, pp. 1676–1681, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. Pan, J. Suárez De Lezo, A. Medina et al., “Simple and complex stent strategies for bifurcated coronary arterial stenosis involving the side branch origin,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 83, no. 9, pp. 1320–1325, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. E. Jorgensen and S. Helqvist, “Stent treatment of coronary artery bifurcation lesions,” European Heart Journal, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 383–385, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. I. Iakovou, L. Ge, and A. Colombo, “Contemporary stent treatment of coronary bifurcations,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 1446–1455, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. Popma, M. Leon, and E. J. Topol, Atlas of Interventional Cardiology, Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 1994.
  7. A. M. Spokojny and T. M. Sanborn, “The bifurcation lesion,” in Strategic Approaches in Coronary Intervention, S. G. Ellis and D. R. Holmes, Eds., p. 288, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Md, USA, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  8. T. Lefèvre, Y. Louvard, M. C. Morice et al., “Stenting of bifurcation lesions: classification, treatments, and results,” Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, vol. 49, pp. 274–283, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  9. R. D. Safian, “Bifurcation lesions,” in Manual of Interventional Cardiology, R. D. Safian and M. Freed, Eds., pp. 221–236, Physicians' Press, Royal Oak, Mich, USA, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  10. G. Sianos, M. A. Morel, and A. P. Kappetein, “The SYNTAX score: an angiographic tool grading the complexity of coronary artery disease,” Eurointervention, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 219–227, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  11. M. R. Movahed and C. T. Stinis, “A new proposed simplified classification of coronary artery bifurcation lesions and bifurcation interventional techniques,” Journal of Invasive Cardiology, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 199–204, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Medina, J. Suarez de Lezo, and M. A. Pan, “A new classification of coronary bifurcation lesions,” Revista Espanola de Cardiologia, vol. 59, no. 2, p. 183, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. T. Asakura and T. Karino, “Flow patterns and spatial distributions of atherosclerotic lesions in human coronary arteries,” Circulation Research, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 1045–1066, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. B. I. Tropea, S. Glagov, and C. K. Zarins, Hemodynamics and Atherosclerosis, Futura, Armonk, NY, USA, 1997.
  15. C. G. Caro, J. M. Fitz-Gerald, and R. C. Schroter, “Arterial wall shear and distribution of early atheroma in man,” Nature, vol. 223, pp. 1159–1161, 1969. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. M. Malek, S. L. Alper, and S. Izumo, “Hemodynamic shear stress and its role in atherosclerosis,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 282, no. 21, pp. 2035–2042, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. H. Stone, A. U. Coskun, Y. Yeghiazarians et al., “Prediction of sites of coronary atherosclerosis progression: in vivo profiling of endothelial shear stress, lumen, and outer vessel wall characteristics to predict vascular behavior,” Current Opinion in Cardiology, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 458–470, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. A. J. Gimbrone, J. N. Topper, T. Nagel, K. R. Anderson, and G. Garcia-Cardena, “Endothelial dysfunction, hemodynamic forces, and atherogenesis,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 902, pp. 230–239, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. S. Cunningham and A. I. Gotlieb, “The role of shear stress in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis,” Laboratory Investigation, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 9–23, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. K. C. Koskinas, C. L. Feldman, Y. S. Chatzizisis et al., “Natural history of experimental coronary atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling in relation to endothelial shear stress: a serial, in vivo intravascular ultrasound study,” Circulation, vol. 121, no. 19, pp. 2092–2101, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C. Cheng, D. Tempel, R. van Haperen et al., “Atherosclerotic lesion size and vulnerability are determined by patterns of fluid shear stress,” Circulation, vol. 113, no. 23, pp. 2744–2753, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. N. Ku, D. P. Giddens, C. K. Zarins, and S. Glagov, “Pulsatile flow and atherosclerosis in the human carotid bifurcation. Positive correlation between plaque location and low and oscillating shear stress,” Arteriosclerosis, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 293–302, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. Fabregues, K. Baijens, R. Rieu, and P. Bergeron, “Hemodynamics of endovascular prostheses,” Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 45–54, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. C. von Birgelen, S. G. Airiian, G. S. Mintz et al., “Variations of remodeling in response to left main atherosclerosis assessed with intravascular ultrasound in vivo,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 80, no. 11, pp. 1408–1413, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. B. Hermiller, C. E. Buller, A. N. Tenaglia et al., “Unrecognized left main coronary artery disease in patients undergoing interventional procedures,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 173–176, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. T. C. Gerber, R. Erbel, G. Gorge, J. Ge, H. J. Rupprecht, and J. Meyer, “Extent of atherosclerosis and remodeling of the left main coronary artery determined by intravascular ultrasound,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 73, no. 9, pp. 666–671, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. Z. Kaimkhani, M. Ali, and A. M. A. Faruqui, “Coronary artery diameter in a cohort of adult Pakistani population,” Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 258–261, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. C. Godino, R. Al-Lamee, C. La Rosa et al., “Coronary left main and non-left main bifurcation angles: how are the angles modified by different bifurcation stenting techniques?” Journal of Interventional Cardiology, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 382–393, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. D. G. Rizik, K. J. Klassen, and J. B. Hermiller, “Bifurcation CAD: current techniques and future directions: morphology of the bifurcation,” Journal of Invasive Cardiology, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 82–90, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. H. Na, B. K. Koo, J. C. Kim et al., “Evaluation of local flow conditions in jailed side branch lesions using computational fluid dynamics,” Korean Circulation Journal, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 91–96, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. Y. Louvard, A. Medina, and G. Stankovic, “Classification of coronary artery bifurcation lesions and treatments,” Eurointervention, vol. 6, supplement J, pp. 31–35, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  32. J. F. Ladisa, J. I. Guler, L. E. Olson et al., “Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics modeling of alterations in coronary wall shear stress produced by stent implantation,” Annals of Biomedical Engineering, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 972–980, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. I. Faik, R. Mongrain, R. L. Leask, J. Rodes-Cabau, E. Larose, and O. F. Bertrand, “Time-dependent 3D simulations of the hemodynamics in a stented coronary artery,” Biomedical Materials, vol. 2, pp. S28–S37, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. Z. D. Zhang, M. Svendsen, J. S. Choy et al., “New method to measure coronary velocity and coronary flow reserve,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 301, no. 1, pp. H21–H28, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  35. W. G. Hundley, R. A. Lange, G. D. Clarke et al., “Assessment of coronary arterial flow and flow reserve in humans with magnetic resonance imaging,” Circulation, vol. 93, no. 8, pp. 1502–1508, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. S. Stroud, S. A. Berger, and D. Saloner, “Numerical analysis of flow through a severely stenotic carotid artery bifurcation,” Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, vol. 124, no. 1, pp. 9–20, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. N. Benard, R. Perrault, and D. Coisne, “Computational approach to estimating the effects of blood properties on changes in intra-stent flow,” Annals of Biomedical Engineering, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 1259–1271, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. Y. S. Chatzizisis, M. Jonas, A. U. Coskun et al., “Prediction of the localization of high-risk coronary atherosclerotic plaques on the basis of low endothelial shear stress-an intravascular ultrasound and histopathology natural history study,” Circulation, vol. 117, no. 8, pp. 993–1002, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. B. Fox, K. James, B. Morgan, and A. Seed, “Distribution of fatty and fibrous plaques in young human coronary arteries,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 41, no. 2-3, pp. 337–347, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. C. Velican and D. Velican, “Incidence, topography and light-microscopic feature of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in adults 26–35 years old,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 111–122, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. G. Nakazawa, S. K. Yazdani, A. V. Finn, M. Vorpahl, F. D. Kolodgie, and R. Virmani, “Pathological findings at bifurcation lesions: the impact of flow distribution on atherosclerosis and arterial healing after stent implantation,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 55, no. 16, pp. 1679–1687, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. A. Ahmed and D. P. Giddens, “Velocity measurements in steady flow through axisymmetric stenoses at moderate Reynolds numbers,” Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 505–516, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus