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Modelling and Simulation in Engineering
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 542198, 12 pages
Research Article

An Accurate Hardware Sum-of-Cisoids Fading Channel Simulator for Isotropic and Non-Isotropic Mobile Radio Environments

1Department of Telecommunications, CINVESTAV I.P.N., 45019 Zapopan, JAL, Mexico
2Faculty of Engineering and Science, University of Agder, P.O. Box 509, 4898 Grimstad, Norway

Received 27 April 2012; Revised 13 July 2012; Accepted 27 July 2012

Academic Editor: Carlos A. Gutierrez

Copyright © 2012 L. Vela-Garcia et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The rapid technological development in the field of wireless communications calls for devices capable of reproducing and simulating the behavior of the channel under realistic propagation conditions. This paper presents a hardware fading channel simulator that is able to generate stochastic processes characterized by symmetrical and asymmetrical Doppler power spectral densities (PSDs) depending on the assumption of isotropic or non-isotropic scattering. The concept of the proposed hardware simulator is based on an implementation of the sum-of-cisoids (SOC) method. The hardware simulator is capable of handling any configuration of the cisoid's amplitudes, frequencies, and phases. Each of the cisoids that constitutes the SOC model is implemented using a piecewise polynomial approximation technique. The investigation of the higher-order statistics of the generated fading processes, like the level-crossing rate (LCR) and the average duration of fades (ADF), shows that our design is able to reproduce accurately the key features of realistic channel models that are considered as candidates for the latest wireless communication standards.