Multiple Sclerosis International / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Effects of Walking Direction and Cognitive Challenges on Gait in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis

Table 1

Main effects and two-way interactions for spatiotemporal gait parameters.

Main effectsVelocity (cm/s)Cadence (steps/min)Stride length (cm)
Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD

Group
 MS105.6 ± 37.510.80.000.37109.1 ± 23.31.30.270.07114.2 ± 25.219.9<0.010.52
 Control138.4 ± 18.4115.9 ± 9.2143.9 ± 18.0
Direction
 Forward136.1 ± 23.836.0<0.010.67113.7 ± 12.10.40.560.02143.3 ± 18.2141.8<0.010.89
 Backward107.9 ± 36.4111.3 ± 22.4114.8 ± 25.7
Cognitive condition
 None127.2 ± 32.725.5<0.010.59116.8 ± 15.114.5<0.010.45130.3 ± 27.83.20.090.15
 Dual116.7 ± 34.3108.2 ± 19.6127.8 ± 25.2
Group × direction
 MS forward125.5 ± 27.56.10.020.25113.3 ± 15.81.90.180.10132.1 ± 16.69.4<0.010.34
 MS backward85.7 ± 36.1105.0 ± 28.896.2 ± 18.5
 Control forward146.7 ± 13.1114.2 ± 7.0154.5 ± 11.9
 Control backward130.0 ± 19.4117.5 ± 10.9133.3 ± 16.9
Group × cognitive condition
 MS none113.5 ± 38.06.50.020.26116.3 ± 20.16.30.020.26115.8 ± 28.00.20.680.01
 MS dual97.7 ± 36.3101.9 ± 24.5112.6 ± 22.5
 Control none141.0 ± 18.6117.3 ± 7.8144.9 ± 18.8
 Control dual135.8 ± 18.2114.4 ± 10.4142.9 ± 17.6
Direction × cognitive condition
 Forward none143.2 ± 19.74.50.050.20117.3 ± 9.01.60.220.08146.8 ± 16.811.9<0.010.40
 Forward dual129.0 ± 25.9110.2 ± 13.8139.8 ± 19.3
 Backward none111.3 ± 35.6116.4 ± 19.6113.9 ± 27.1
 Backward dual104.5 ± 37.7106.2 ± 24.3115.7 ± 24.9

Note: bolded values represent statistically significant effects.

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