Research Article

Sex Differences and the Impact of Chronic Stress and Recovery on Instrumental Learning

Figure 6

It shows tone-signaled avoidance efficiency ratios (ERs) for transfer (a) and AV-only (b) animals for control (gray), stressed (black), and recovered (checkered) animals. There was a main effect of sex for transfer animals with females avoiding more efficiently. There was also an effect of condition for females with stressed females avoiding significantly less efficiently than control females. A similar pattern was seen for AV-only; however the effect was less robust and showed only a moderate sex effect.