Table of Contents
New Journal of Science
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 756240, 22 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/756240
Review Article

Myocardial Reprogramming Medicine: The Development, Application, and Challenge of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

Departments of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0529, USA

Received 16 January 2014; Revised 1 April 2014; Accepted 2 April 2014; Published 16 June 2014

Academic Editor: Stefan Liebau

Copyright © 2014 Yigang Wang. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be generated by reprogramming of adult/somatic cells. The somatic cell reprogramming technology offers a promising strategy for patient-specific cardiac regenerative medicine, disease modeling, and drug discovery. iPSCs are an ideal potential option for an autologous cell source, as compared to other stem/progenitor cells, because they can be propagated indefinitely and are able to generate a large number of functional cardiovascular cells. However, there are concerns about the specificity, efficiency, immunogenicity, and safety of iPSCs which are major challenges in current translational studies. In order to bring iPSC technology closer to clinical use, fundamental changes in this technique are required to ensure that therapeutic progenies are functional and nontumorigenic. It is therefore critical to understand and investigate the biology, genetic, and epigenetic mechanisms of iPSCs generation and differentiation. In this spotlight paper the discovery, history, and relative mechanisms of iPSC generation are summarized. The current technological improvements and potential applications are highlighted along with the important challenges and perspectives. Finally, emerging technologies are presented in which improvements to iPSC generation and differentiation approaches might warrant further investigation, such as integration-free approaches, direct reprogramming, and the development of iPSC banking.