Table of Contents
New Journal of Science
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 1652598, 7 pages
Research Article

Determination of Bacterial Quality of Water in Randomly Selected Swimming Pools in Kampala City, Uganda

1Department of Wildlife and Aquatic Animal Resources (WAAR), School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Resources (SVAR), College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity (COVAB), Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda
2Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, School of Biosecurity, Biotechnical and Laboratory Sciences (SBLS), College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity (COVAB), Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda
3Medical Research Council (MRC)/Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI), Research Unit on AIDS, P.O. Box 49, Entebbe, Uganda

Correspondence should be addressed to Celsus Sente

Received 6 February 2017; Revised 30 April 2017; Accepted 18 May 2017; Published 14 June 2017

Academic Editor: Chrissanthy Papadopoulou

Copyright © 2017 Joyce Margaret Ekopai et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Swimming pools have become major recreation facilities for leisure and sports in cities across the world, but the standard guidelines, particularly in developing countries, are not adhered to because little is known about the contaminants in the pools and the possible health risks involved. This study provides a survey of bacterial quality of water from swimming pools in Kampala. A total of 26 water samples were collected from 13 outdoor swimming pools in Kampala between January and June 2016 and analysed for total aerobic plate count (TPC), Escherichia coli, coliforms, and Salmonella. The heterotrophic bacterial load ranged between 0 and 6.35 × 105 cfu/ml, where 6.35 × 105 cfu/ml was the highest load and 3 × 101 cfu/ml the least. The highest average TPC was 6.19 × 105 cfu/ml and the lowest 5.07 × 103 cfu/ml. 30.8% of the pools had TPC within acceptable limits (≤5 × 102 cfu/ml), whereas 69.2% were highly contaminated and did not conform to the Uganda National Water and Sewerage Corporation standards of recreational water quality for both treated (0 cfu/100 mls) water and untreated (10 cfu/100 mls) water. Although no positive results were yielded for E. coli, coliforms, and Salmonella, TPC represented the presence of heterotrophic bacteria which are often indicated in opportunistic infections.