Isolated rods enzymatically removed from normal adult rat retina have been transplanted to the subretinal space of adult rats with a retinal dystrophy winich has destroyed almost all the photoreceptors. These transplanted rods survive for months after transplantation during which time they form synapses with other retinal cells. Rod spherules with large amounts of synaptic vesicles and synaptic ribbons are found forming discreet contacts with pre- and postsynaptic densities in arrangements closely resembling those seen in the normal retina.